Conatus Pharmaceuticals
Conatus Pharmaceuticals Inc. (Form: S-3, Received: 08/17/2017 16:17:45)
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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on August 17, 2017

Registration No. 333-            

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

CONATUS PHARMACEUTICALS INC.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

 

 

 

Delaware  

16745 West Bernardo Drive, Suite 200

San Diego, CA 92127

 

(858) 376-2600

  20-3183915

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

  (Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)  

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

 

 

Steven J. Mento, Ph.D.

President and Chief Executive Officer

Conatus Pharmaceuticals Inc.

16745 West Bernardo Drive, Suite 200

San Diego, CA 92127

(858) 376-2600

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

Copies to:

Scott N. Wolfe, Esq.

Cheston J. Larson, Esq.

Matthew T. Bush, Esq.

Latham & Watkins LLP

12670 High Bluff Drive

San Diego, CA 92130

(858) 523-5400

 

APPROXIMATE DATE OF COMMENCEMENT OF PROPOSED SALE TO THE PUBLIC: From time to time after the effective date of this registration statement.

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.  ☐

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box.  ☒

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective on filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer   ☒  (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)    Smaller reporting company  
     Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  ☒

 

 

 


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CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of each class of

securities to be registered

  

Amount to be registered/proposed

maximum offering price

per unit/proposed

maximum aggregate offering price

 

Amount of

registration fee

Common Stock, $0.0001 par value

   (1)    

Preferred Stock, $0.0001 par value

   (1)    

Debt Securities

   (1)    

Warrants

   (1)    

Units

   (1)    

Total

   $100,000,000(2)   $11,590(3)(4)

 

 

(1) An unspecified number of securities or aggregate principal amount, as applicable, is being registered as may from time to time be offered at unspecified prices.
(2) Estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee. No separate consideration will be received for shares of common stock that are issued upon conversion of debt securities or preferred stock or upon exercise of common stock warrants registered hereunder. The aggregate maximum offering price of all securities issued pursuant to this registration statement will not exceed $100,000,000.
(3) The registration fee has been calculated in accordance with Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
(4) Pursuant to Rule 457(p) of the rules and regulations under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, a portion of the registration fee of $11,590 due for the registration of the securities to be registered pursuant to this registration statement is offset by $10,196.03 of the registration fee previously paid by the registrant under Registration Statement No. 333-198142, which was initially filed on August 14, 2014 and declared effective on August 25, 2014.

 

 

The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended or until this registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.


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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Subject to Completion, dated August 17, 2017.

PROSPECTUS

 

LOGO

$100,000,000

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

Units

 

 

We may offer and sell up to $100.0 million in the aggregate of the securities identified above from time to time in one or more offerings. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities.

Each time we offer and sell securities, we will provide a supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the offering and the amounts, prices and terms of the securities. The supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus with respect to that offering. You should carefully read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement before you invest in any of our securities.

We may offer and sell the securities described in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement to or through one or more underwriters, dealers and agents, or directly to purchasers, or through a combination of these methods. If any underwriters, dealers or agents are involved in the sale of any of the securities, their names and any applicable purchase price, fee, commission or discount arrangement between or among them will be set forth, or will be calculable from the information set forth, in the applicable prospectus supplement. See the sections of this prospectus entitled “About this Prospectus” and “Plan of Distribution” for more information. No securities may be sold without delivery of this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of such securities.

 

 

INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES INVOLVES RISKS. SEE THE “ RISK FACTORS ” ON PAGE 6 OF THIS PROSPECTUS AND ANY SIMILAR SECTION CONTAINED IN THE APPLICABLE PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT CONCERNING FACTORS YOU SHOULD CONSIDER BEFORE INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES.

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “CNAT.” On August 16, 2017, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Market was $5.11 per share.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

The date of this prospectus is                    , 2017.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

     2  

THE COMPANY

     4  

RISK FACTORS

     6  

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     6  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     7  

DIVIDEND POLICY

     7  

RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

     8  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     9  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     14  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     22  

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

     24  

GLOBAL SECURITIES

     25  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     28  

LEGAL MATTERS

     30  

EXPERTS

     30  


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. By using a shelf registration statement, we may sell securities from time to time and in one or more offerings up to a total dollar amount of $100.0 million as described in this prospectus. Each time that we offer and sell securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the securities being offered and sold and the specific terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus with respect to that offering. If there is any inconsistency between the information in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, you should rely on the prospectus supplement. Before purchasing any securities, you should carefully read both this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference.”

We have not authorized anyone to provide you with any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectuses prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We will not make an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement to this prospectus is accurate only as of the date on its respective cover, and that any information incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, unless we indicate otherwise. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. This prospectus incorporates by reference, and any prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus may contain and incorporate by reference, market data and industry statistics and forecasts that are based on independent industry publications and other publicly available information. Although we believe these sources are reliable, we do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of this information and we have not independently verified this information. Although we are not aware of any misstatements regarding the market and industry data presented in this prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference, these estimates involve risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. Accordingly, investors should not place undue reliance on this information.

When we refer to “Conatus,” “we,” “our,” “us” and the “Company” in this prospectus, we mean Conatus Pharmaceuticals Inc., unless otherwise specified. When we refer to “you,” we mean the holders of the applicable series of securities.

We use our registered trademark, CONATUS PHARMACEUTICALS, in this prospectus. This prospectus also includes trademarks, tradenames and service marks that are the property of other organizations. Solely for convenience, trademarks and tradenames referred to in this prospectus appear without the ® and ™ symbols, but those references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or that the applicable owner will not assert its rights, to these trademarks and tradenames.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

Available Information

We file reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Information filed with the SEC by us can be inspected and copied at the Public Reference Room maintained by the SEC at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. You may also obtain copies of this information by mail from the Public Reference Room of the SEC at prescribed rates. Further information on the operation of the SEC’s Public Reference Room in Washington, D.C. can be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC also maintains a web site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information about issuers, such as us, who file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is http://www.sec.gov .

Our web site address is www.conatuspharma.com. The information on our web site, however, is not, and should not be deemed to be, a part of this prospectus.

This prospectus and any prospectus supplement are part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC and do not contain all of the information in the registration statement. The full registration statement may be obtained from the SEC or us, as provided below. Forms of the indenture and other documents establishing the terms of the offered securities are or may be filed as exhibits to the registration statement. Statements in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement about these documents are summaries and each statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the document to which it refers. You should refer to the actual documents for a more complete description of the relevant matters. You may inspect a copy of the registration statement at the SEC’s Public Reference Room in Washington, D.C. or through the SEC’s website, as provided above.

Incorporation by Reference

The SEC’s rules allow us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is deemed to be part of this prospectus, and subsequent information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede that information. Any statement contained in a previously filed document incorporated by reference will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus modifies or replaces that statement.

We incorporate by reference our documents listed below and any future filings made by us with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, which we refer to as the “Exchange Act” in this prospectus, between the date of this prospectus and the termination of the offering of the securities described in this prospectus. We are not, however, incorporating by reference any documents or portions thereof, whether specifically listed below or filed in the future, that are not deemed “filed” with the SEC, including our Compensation Committee report and performance graph or any information furnished pursuant to Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K or related exhibits furnished pursuant to Item 9.01 of Form 8-K.

This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement incorporate by reference the documents set forth below that have previously been filed with the SEC:

 

    our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016, filed with the SEC on March 16, 2017;

 

    our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2017 and June 30, 2017, filed with the SEC on May 5, 2017 and August 4, 2017, respectively;

 

    our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, filed with the SEC on April 28, 2017;

 

    our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on January 26, 2017, February 1, 2017, February 7, 2017, February 16, 2017, February 17, 2017, March 21, 2017, May 4, 2017, May 11, 2017, June 26, 2017 and July 6, 2017; and

 

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    the description of our Common Stock contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC on July 12, 2013 and any amendment or report filed with the SEC for the purpose of updating the description.

All reports and other documents we subsequently file pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act prior to the termination of this offering, including all such documents we may file with the SEC after the date of the initial registration statement and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement, but excluding any information furnished to, rather than filed with, the SEC, will also be incorporated by reference into this prospectus and deemed to be part of this prospectus from the date of the filing of such reports and documents.

You may request a free copy of any of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus (other than exhibits, unless they are specifically incorporated by reference in the documents) by writing or telephoning us at the following address:

Conatus Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Attn: Corporate Secretary

16745 West Bernardo Drive, Suite 200

San Diego, California 92127

(858) 376-2600

Exhibits to the filings will not be sent, however, unless those exhibits have specifically been incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement.

 

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THE COMPANY

We are a biotechnology company focused on the development and commercialization of novel medicines to treat liver disease. We are developing emricasan, a first-in-class, orally active pan-caspase protease inhibitor, for the treatment of patients with chronic liver disease. Emricasan is designed to reduce the activities of human caspases, which are enzymes that mediate inflammation and apoptosis. We believe that by reducing the activity of these enzymes, caspase inhibitors have the potential to interrupt the progression of a variety of diseases.

We plan to continue advancing toward initial registration of emricasan for patients with cirrhosis due to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, or NASH, with parallel development toward registration of emricasan for patients with NASH fibrosis. Our current clinical program for emricasan includes the following randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase 2b clinical trials:

 

    Phase 2b ENCORE-PH (Portal Hypertension) Clinical Trial : In November 2016, we initiated a clinical trial to evaluate the effect of emricasan in approximately 240 compensated or early decompensated NASH cirrhosis patients with severe portal hypertension. Top-line results are expected in 2018.

 

    Phase 2b ENCORE-LF (Liver Function) Clinical Trial : In May 2017, we initiated a clinical trial to evaluate emricasan in approximately 210 patients with decompensated NASH cirrhosis. Top-line results are expected in 2019.

 

    Phase 2b ENCORE-NF (NASH Fibrosis) Clinical Trial : In January 2016, we initiated a clinical trial to evaluate emricasan in approximately 330 patients with liver fibrosis resulting from NASH. Top-line results are expected in the first half of 2019.

 

    Phase 2b POLT-HCV-SVR Clinical Trial : In May 2014, we initiated a clinical trial in approximately 60 post-orthotopic liver transplant, or POLT, recipients with reestablished liver fibrosis post-transplant as a result of recurrent hepatitis C virus, or HCV, infection who have successfully achieved a sustained viral response, or SVR, following HCV antiviral therapy, or POLT-HCV-SVR, patients with residual fibrosis or cirrhosis, classified as Ishak Fibrosis Score 2-6. Top-line results are expected in the first half of 2018.

In May 2017, Novartis Pharma AG, or Novartis, exercised its option under the Option, Collaboration and License Agreement, or the Collaboration Agreement, we entered into with Novartis in December 2016. Pursuant to such exercise, we granted Novartis an exclusive, worldwide license to our intellectual property rights relating to emricasan to collaborate with us and develop and commercialize emricasan products, containing emricasan either as a single active ingredient or in combination with other Novartis compounds for liver cirrhosis or liver fibrosis, for the treatment, diagnosis and prevention of disease in all indications in humans. The license became effective upon our receipt of a $7.0 million option exercise payment in July 2017.

Pursuant to the Collaboration Agreement, we are responsible for completing the three ENCORE trials and the POLT-HCV-SVR trial described above. We and Novartis will share the costs of these four Phase 2b trials equally. Novartis is responsible for 100% of certain expenses for required registration-supportive nonclinical activities. Novartis is also responsible for the development of emricasan beyond the four Phase 2b trials described above, including the Phase 3 development of emricasan single agent products and all development for emricasan combination products, and Novartis has agreed to use commercially reasonable efforts to develop and commercialize emricasan products. A joint steering committee comprised of representatives from our company and Novartis oversees the collaboration, development and commercialization of emricasan products.

Under the Collaboration Agreement, Novartis paid us an upfront payment of $50.0 million and an option exercise payment of $7.0 million. In addition, we are eligible to receive up to an aggregate of $650.0 million in milestone payments, as well as royalties.

We also plan to expand our development pipeline by developing our existing preclinical product candidates, developing new product candidates, or purchasing or in-licensing product candidates. In addition to liver disease,

 

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we may pursue the development of product candidates in other disease areas. In June 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration granted Orphan Drug Designation to our preclinical product candidate IDN-7314, a pan-caspase inhibitor, for the treatment of primary sclerosing cholangitis, a disease affecting bile ducts in the liver, which can lead to cirrhosis and liver failure. We believe the Orphan Drug Designation provides a potential opportunity to address an important unmet medical need and expand our development pipeline beyond emricasan. We will continue to evaluate the potential of IDN-7314 as a product candidate, along with other product candidate opportunities, and we plan to announce initial pipeline expansion plans later in 2017.

We were incorporated under the laws of the state of Delaware in 2005. Our principal executive offices are located at 16745 West Bernardo Drive, Suite 200, San Diego, California 92127, and our telephone number is (858) 376-2600.

 

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RISK FACTORS

Investment in any securities offered pursuant to this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement involves risks. You should carefully consider the risk factors incorporated by reference to our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or Current Reports on Form 8-K we file after the date of this prospectus, and all other information contained or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act, and the risk factors and other information contained in the applicable prospectus supplement before acquiring any of such securities. The occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered securities.

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein contain forward-looking statements. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein are forward-looking statements, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, business strategy, prospective products, product approvals, research and development costs, timing and likelihood of success, plans and objectives of management for future operations and future results of anticipated products. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein also contain estimates and other statistical data made by independent parties and by us relating to market size and growth and other data about our industry. This data involves a number of assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to such estimates. In addition, projections, assumptions and estimates of our future performance and the future performance of the markets in which we operate are necessarily subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk.

In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “could,” “intend,” “target,” “project,” “contemplates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “potential” or “continue” or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions. The forward-looking statements in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein are only predictions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this prospectus and are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions, which we discuss in greater detail in the documents incorporated by reference herein, including under the heading “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus. The events and circumstances reflected in our forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur and actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. Moreover, we operate in an evolving environment. New risk factors and uncertainties may emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for management to predict all risk factors and uncertainties. Given these risks and uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Except as required by applicable law, we do not plan to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus or the documents incorporated by reference herein, whether as a result of any new information, future events, changed circumstances or otherwise. For all forward-looking statements, we claim the protection of the safe harbor for forward-looking statements contained in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

DIVIDEND POLICY

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently anticipate that we will retain future earnings, if any, for the development, operation and expansion of our business and do not anticipate declaring or paying any cash dividends for the foreseeable future. Any future determination related to our dividend policy will be made at the discretion of our board of directors after considering our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, business prospects and other factors the board of directors deems relevant, and subject to the restrictions contained in any future financing instruments.

 

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RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

The following table sets forth the historical ratios of earnings to fixed charges for Conatus for the periods indicated.

 

     Year Ended December 31,      Six Months
Ended

June 30, 2017
 
   2012      2013      2014      2015      2016     

Ratio of earnings to fixed charges (1)

     —          —          —          —          —          —    

 

(1) Our earnings were inadequate to cover fixed charges for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016 by $8.7 million, $15.6 million, $22.3 million, $24.1 million, and $29.7 million, respectively, and by $9.0 million for the six months ended June 30, 2017.

For purposes of calculating the ratio of earnings to fixed charges, earnings represent net income (loss) before provision for income taxes plus fixed charges. Fixed charges consist of interest expense, the remeasurement of convertible debt to fair value, and an estimate of the interest factor inherent in our operating leases. The portion of total rental expense that represents the interest factor is estimated to be 4%.

For the periods indicated above, we had no outstanding shares of preferred stock with required dividend payments. Therefore, the ratios of earnings to combined fixed charges and preferred stock dividends are identical to the ratios presented in the tables above.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

The following description of our capital stock is not complete and may not contain all the information you should consider before investing in our capital stock. This description is summarized from, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, which has been publicly filed with the SEC. See “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference.”

Our authorized capital stock consists of:

 

    200,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.0001 par value; and

 

    10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.0001 par value.

Common Stock

As of June 30, 2017, there were 29,994,275 shares of our common stock outstanding and held of record by 27 stockholders. Under the terms of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders, including the election of directors, and do not have cumulative voting rights. Accordingly, the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors can elect all of the directors standing for election, if they so choose, other than any directors that holders of any preferred stock we may issue may be entitled to elect. Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any then outstanding preferred stock, holders of common stock are entitled to receive ratably those dividends, if any, as may be declared by the board of directors out of legally available funds. In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, the holders of common stock will be entitled to share ratably in the assets legally available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of or provision for all of our debts and other liabilities, subject to the prior rights of any preferred stock then outstanding. Holders of common stock have no preemptive or conversion rights or other subscription rights and there are no redemption or sinking funds provisions applicable to the common stock. All outstanding shares of common stock are duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable. The rights, preferences and privileges of holders of common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC.

Preferred Stock

We currently have no outstanding shares of preferred stock. Under the terms of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, our board of directors has the authority, without further action by our stockholders, to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series, to establish from time to time the number of shares to be included in each such series, to fix the dividend, voting and other rights, preferences and privileges of the shares of each wholly unissued series and any qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereon, and to increase or decrease the number of shares of any such series, but not below the number of shares of such series then outstanding. Prior to the issuance of shares of each series, the board of directors is required by the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, or the DGCL, and our amended and restated certificate of incorporation to adopt resolutions and file a certificate of designation with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware. The certificate of designation fixes for each class or series the designations, powers, preferences, rights, qualifications, limitations and restrictions, including dividend rights, conversion rights, redemption privileges and liquidation preferences.

All shares of preferred stock offered by this prospectus will, when issued, be fully paid and nonassessable and will not have any preemptive or similar rights. Our board of directors may authorize the issuance of preferred

 

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stock with voting or conversion rights that could adversely affect the voting power or other rights of the holders of the common stock. The issuance of preferred stock, while providing flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions and other corporate purposes, could, among other things, have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in our control and may adversely affect the market price of the common stock and the voting and other rights of the holders of common stock.

We will describe in a prospectus supplement relating to the class or series of preferred stock being offered the following terms:

 

    the title and stated value of the preferred stock;

 

    the number of shares of the preferred stock offered, the liquidation preference per share and the offering price of the preferred stock;

 

    the dividend rate(s), period(s) or payment date(s) or method(s) of calculation applicable to the preferred stock;

 

    whether dividends are cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends on the preferred stock will accumulate;

 

    the procedures for any auction and remarketing, if any, for the preferred stock;

 

    the provisions for a sinking fund, if any, for the preferred stock;

 

    the provision for redemption, if applicable, of the preferred stock;

 

    any listing of the preferred stock on any securities exchange;

 

    the terms and conditions, if applicable, upon which the preferred stock will be convertible into common stock, including the conversion price or manner of calculation and conversion period;

 

    voting rights, if any, of the preferred stock;

 

    a discussion of any material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred stock;

 

    the relative ranking and preferences of the preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon the liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs;

 

    any limitations on issuance of any class or series of preferred stock ranking senior to or on a parity with the class or series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs; and

 

    any other specific terms, preferences, rights, limitations or restrictions of the preferred stock.

Unless we specify otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the preferred stock will rank, relating to dividends and upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up:

 

    senior to all classes or series of our common stock and to all of our equity securities ranking junior to the preferred stock;

 

    on a parity with all of our equity securities the terms of which specifically provide that the equity securities rank on a parity with the preferred stock; and

 

    junior to all of our equity securities the terms of which specifically provide that the equity securities rank senior to the preferred stock.

The term equity securities does not include convertible debt securities.

Warrants

As of June 30, 2017, there were outstanding warrants to purchase 149,704 shares of our common stock. The warrants contain customary anti-dilution and net issuance provisions and are not callable by us.

 

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Registration Rights

As of June 30, 2017, holders of 2,015,847 shares of our common stock, which includes 35,096 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants, or their transferees will be entitled to the following rights with respect to the registration of such shares for public resale under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, pursuant to an investor rights agreement by and among us and certain of our stockholders. The registration of shares of common stock as a result of the following rights being exercised would enable holders to trade these shares without restriction under the Securities Act when the applicable registration statement is declared effective.

Demand Registration Rights

If at any time the holders of at least 30% of the registrable securities request in writing that we effect a registration with respect to at least 30% of the registrable securities then outstanding or a lesser percentage if shares in an offering with an anticipated aggregate offering price of at least $5.0 million, we may be required to register their shares. We are obligated to effect at most two registrations in any 12-month period for the holders of registrable securities in response to these demand registration rights. If the holders requesting registration intend to distribute their shares by means of an underwriting, the managing underwriter of such offering will have the right to limit the numbers of shares to be underwritten for reasons related to the marketing of the shares.

Piggyback Registration Rights

If at any time we propose to register any shares of our common stock under the Securities Act, subject to certain exceptions, the holders of registrable securities will be entitled to notice of the registration and to include their shares of registrable securities in the registration. If our proposed registration involves an underwriting, the managing underwriter of such offering will have the right to limit the number of shares to be underwritten for reasons related to the marketing of the shares.

Form S-3 Registration Rights

If at any time a holder of registrable securities requests in writing that we register their shares for public resale on Form S-3 and the reasonably anticipated price to the public of the offering is $1.0 million or more, we will be required to use our best efforts to effect such registration; provided, however, that we will not be required to effect such a registration if, within the preceding 12 months, we have already effected two registrations on Form S-3 for the holders of registrable securities.

Expenses

Ordinarily, other than underwriting discounts and commissions, we will be required to pay all expenses incurred by us related to any registration effected pursuant to the exercise of these registration rights. These expenses may include all registration and filing fees, printing expenses, fees and disbursements of our counsel, reasonable fees and disbursements of a counsel for the selling securityholders, blue sky fees and expenses and the expenses of any special audits incident to the registration.

Termination of Registration Rights

The registration rights terminate upon the earlier of July 24, 2020, or, with respect to the registration rights of an individual holder, when the holder can sell all of such holder’s registrable securities in a three-month period in compliance with Rule 144 of the Securities Act.

Anti-Takeover Effects of Delaware Law and Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws

Some provisions of Delaware law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws contain provisions that could make the following transactions more difficult: an acquisition

 

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of us by means of a tender offer; an acquisition of us by means of a proxy contest or otherwise; or the removal of our incumbent officers and directors. It is possible that these provisions could make it more difficult to accomplish or could deter transactions that stockholders may otherwise consider to be in their best interest or in our best interests, including transactions which provide for payment of a premium over the market price for our shares.

These provisions, summarized below, are intended to discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to first negotiate with our board of directors. We believe that the benefits of the increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with the proponent of an unfriendly or unsolicited proposal to acquire or restructure us outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging these proposals because negotiation of these proposals could result in an improvement of their terms.

Undesignated Preferred Stock

The ability of our board of directors, without action by the stockholders, to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences as designated by our board of directors could impede the success of any attempt to change control of us. These and other provisions may have the effect of deferring hostile takeovers or delaying changes in control or management of our company.

Stockholder Meetings

Our amended and restated bylaws provide that a special meeting of stockholders may be called only by our chairman of the board, chief executive officer or president, or by a resolution adopted by a majority of our board of directors.

Requirements for Advance Notification of Stockholder Nominations and Proposals

Our amended and restated bylaws establish advance notice procedures with respect to stockholder proposals to be brought before a stockholder meeting and the nomination of candidates for election as directors, other than nominations made by or at the direction of the board of directors or a committee of the board of directors.

Elimination of Stockholder Action by Written Consent

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws eliminate the right of stockholders to act by written consent without a meeting.

Staggered Board

Our board of directors is divided into three classes. The directors in each class will serve for a three-year term, one class being elected each year by our stockholders. This system of electing and removing directors may tend to discourage a third-party from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us, because it generally makes it more difficult for stockholders to replace a majority of the directors.

Removal of Directors

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that no member of our board of directors may be removed from office by our stockholders except for cause and, in addition to any other vote required by law, upon the approval of not less than two-thirds of the total voting power of all of our outstanding voting stock then entitled to vote in the election of directors.

 

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Stockholders Not Entitled to Cumulative Voting

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation does not permit stockholders to cumulate their votes in the election of directors. Accordingly, the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of our common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors can elect all of the directors standing for election, if they choose, other than any directors that holders of our preferred stock may be entitled to elect.

Delaware Anti-Takeover Statute

We are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which prohibits persons deemed to be “interested stockholders” from engaging in a “business combination” with a publicly held Delaware corporation for three years following the date these persons become interested stockholders unless the business combination is, or the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder was, approved in a prescribed manner or another prescribed exception applies. Generally, an “interested stockholder” is a person who, together with affiliates and associates, owns, or within three years prior to the determination of interested stockholder status did own, 15% or more of a corporation’s voting stock. Generally, a “business combination” includes a merger, asset or stock sale, or other transaction resulting in a financial benefit to the interested stockholder. The existence of this provision may have an anti-takeover effect with respect to transactions not approved in advance by the board of directors.

Amendment of Charter Provisions

The amendment of any of the above provisions, except for the provision making it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock, would require approval by holders of at least two-thirds of the total voting power of all of our outstanding voting stock.

The provisions of Delaware law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws could have the effect of discouraging others from attempting hostile takeovers and, as a consequence, they may also inhibit temporary fluctuations in the market price of our common stock that often result from actual or rumored hostile takeover attempts. These provisions may also have the effect of preventing changes in the composition of our board and management. It is possible that these provisions could make it more difficult to accomplish transactions that stockholders may otherwise deem to be in their best interests.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes certain general terms and provisions of the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus. When we offer to sell a particular series of debt securities, we will describe the specific terms of the series in a supplement to this prospectus. We will also indicate in the supplement to what extent the general terms and provisions described in this prospectus apply to a particular series of debt securities. To the extent the information contained in the prospectus supplement differs from this summary description, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement.

We may issue debt securities either separately, or together with, or upon the conversion or exercise of or in exchange for, other securities described in this prospectus. Debt securities may be our senior, senior subordinated or subordinated obligations and, unless otherwise specified in a supplement to this prospectus, the debt securities will be our direct, unsecured obligations and may be issued in one or more series.

The debt securities will be issued under an indenture between us and a trustee named in the prospectus supplement. We have summarized select portions of the indenture below. The summary is not complete. The form of the indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement and you should read the indenture for provisions that may be important to you. In the summary below, we have included references to the section numbers of the indenture so that you can easily locate these provisions. Capitalized terms used in the summary and not defined herein have the meanings specified in the indenture.

General

The terms of each series of debt securities will be established by or pursuant to a resolution of our board of directors and set forth or determined in the manner provided in a resolution of our board of directors, in an officer’s certificate or by a supplemental indenture. (Section 2.2) The particular terms of each series of debt securities will be described in a prospectus supplement relating to such series (including any pricing supplement or term sheet).

We can issue an unlimited amount of debt securities under the indenture that may be in one or more series with the same or various maturities, at par, at a premium, or at a discount. (Section 2.1) We will set forth in a prospectus supplement (including any pricing supplement or term sheet) relating to any series of debt securities being offered, the aggregate principal amount and the following terms of the debt securities, if applicable:

 

    the title and ranking of the debt securities (including the terms of any subordination provisions);

 

    the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount) at which we will sell the debt securities;

 

    any limit on the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities;

 

    the date or dates on which the principal on a particular series of debt securities is payable;

 

    the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or the method used to determine the rate or rates (including any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the debt securities will bear interest, the date or dates from which interest will accrue, the date or dates on which interest will commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date;

 

    the place or places where principal of, and interest, if any, on the debt securities will be payable (and the method of such payment), where the debt securities of such series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange, and where notices and demands to us in respect of the debt securities may be delivered;

 

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    the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which we may redeem the debt securities;

 

    any obligation we have to redeem or purchase the debt securities pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a holder of debt securities and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which the debt securities of a particular series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

    the dates on which and the price or prices at which we will repurchase debt securities at the option of the holders of debt securities and other detailed terms and provisions of these repurchase obligations;

 

    the denominations in which the debt securities will be issued, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;

 

    whether the debt securities will be issued in the form of certificated debt securities or global debt securities;

 

    the portion of principal amount of the debt securities payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity date, if other than the principal amount;

 

    the currency of denomination of the debt securities, which may be U.S. dollars or any foreign currency, and if such currency of denomination is a composite currency, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;

 

    the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of principal of, and premium and interest on, the debt securities will be made;

 

    if payments of principal of, or premium or interest on, the debt securities will be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which the debt securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to these payments will be determined;

 

    the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of, and premium, if any, and interest on, the debt securities will be determined, if these amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;

 

    any provisions relating to any security provided for the debt securities;

 

    any addition to, deletion of or change in the Events of Default described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities and any change in the acceleration provisions described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities;

 

    any addition to, deletion of or change in the covenants described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities;

 

    any depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to the debt securities;

 

    the provisions, if any, relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of such series, including if applicable, the conversion or exchange price and period, provisions as to whether conversion or exchange will be mandatory, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion or exchange price and provisions affecting conversion or exchange;

 

    any other terms of the debt securities, which may supplement, modify or delete any provision of the indenture as it applies to that series, including any terms that may be required under applicable law or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of the securities; and

 

    whether any of our direct or indirect subsidiaries will guarantee the debt securities of that series, including the terms of subordination, if any, of such guarantees. (Section 2.2)

 

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We may issue debt securities that provide for an amount less than their stated principal amount to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity pursuant to the terms of the indenture. We will provide you with information on the federal income tax considerations and other special considerations applicable to any of these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.

If we denominate the purchase price of any of the debt securities in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, or if the principal of, and premium, if any, and interest on, any series of debt securities is payable in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, we will provide you with information on the restrictions, elections, general tax considerations, specific terms and other information with respect to that issue of debt securities and such foreign currency or currencies or foreign currency unit or units in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Transfer and Exchange

Each debt security will be represented by either one or more global securities registered in the name of The Depository Trust Company, DTC or the Depositary, or a nominee of the Depositary (we will refer to any debt security represented by a global debt security as a “book-entry debt security”), or a certificate issued in definitive registered form (we will refer to any debt security represented by a certificated security as a “certificated debt security”) as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Except as set forth under the heading “Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System” below, book-entry debt securities will not be issuable in certificated form.

Certificated Debt Securities. You may transfer or exchange certificated debt securities at any office we maintain for this purpose in accordance with the terms of the indenture. (Section 2.4) No service charge will be made for any transfer or exchange of certificated debt securities, but we may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with a transfer or exchange. (Section 2.7)

You may effect the transfer of certificated debt securities and the right to receive the principal of, premium and interest on certificated debt securities only by surrendering the certificate representing those certificated debt securities and either reissuance by us or the trustee of the certificate to the new holder or the issuance by us or the trustee of a new certificate to the new holder.

Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System. Each global debt security representing book-entry debt securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, the Depositary, and registered in the name of the Depositary or a nominee of the Depositary. Please see the section entitled “Global Securities” for more information.

Covenants

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement any restrictive covenants applicable to any issue of debt securities. (Article IV)

No Protection in the Event of a Change of Control

Unless we state otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions that may afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event we have a change in control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control) that could adversely affect holders of debt securities.

 

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Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets

We may not consolidate with or merge with or into, or convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all of our properties and assets to, any person (a “successor person”) unless:

 

    we are the surviving corporation or the successor person (if other than Conatus) is a corporation organized and validly existing under the laws of any U.S. domestic jurisdiction and expressly assumes our obligations on the debt securities and under the indenture;

 

    immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Default or Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing; and

 

    certain other conditions are met.

Notwithstanding the above, any of our subsidiaries may consolidate with, merge into or transfer all or part of its properties to us. (Section 5.1)

Events of Default

“Event of Default” means with respect to any series of debt securities, any of the following:

 

    default in the payment of any interest upon any debt security of that series when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days (unless the entire amount of the payment is deposited by us with the trustee or with a paying agent prior to the expiration of the 30-day period);

 

    default in the payment of principal of any debt security of that series at its maturity;

 

    default in the performance or breach of any other covenant or warranty by us in the indenture or any debt security (other than a covenant or warranty that has been included in the indenture solely for the benefit of a series of debt securities other than that series), which default continues uncured for a period of 60 days after we receive written notice from the trustee or Conatus and the trustee receive written notice from the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series as provided in the indenture;

 

    certain voluntary or involuntary events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization of Conatus; or

 

    any other Event of Default provided with respect to debt securities of that series that is described in the applicable prospectus supplement. (Section 6.1)

No Event of Default with respect to a particular series of debt securities (except as to certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization) necessarily constitutes an Event of Default with respect to any other series of debt securities. (Section 6.1) The occurrence of certain Events of Default or an acceleration under the indenture may constitute an event of default under certain indebtedness of ours or our subsidiaries outstanding from time to time.

We will provide the trustee written notice of any Default or Event of Default within 30 days of becoming aware of the occurrence of such Default or Event of Default, which notice will describe in reasonable detail the status of such Default or Event of Default and what action we are taking or propose to take in respect thereof. (Section 6.1)

If an Event of Default with respect to debt securities of any series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, then the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may, by a notice in writing to us (and to the trustee if given by the holders), declare to be due and payable immediately the principal of (or, if the debt securities of that series are discount securities, that portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series) and accrued and unpaid interest, if

 

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any, on all debt securities of that series. In the case of an Event of Default resulting from certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, the principal (or such specified amount) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all outstanding debt securities will become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the trustee or any holder of outstanding debt securities. At any time after a declaration of acceleration with respect to debt securities of any series has been made, but before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may rescind and annul the acceleration if all Events of Default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal and interest, if any, with respect to debt securities of that series, have been cured or waived as provided in the indenture. (Section 6.2) We refer you to the prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities that are discount securities for the particular provisions relating to acceleration of a portion of the principal amount of such discount securities upon the occurrence of an Event of Default.

The indenture provides that the trustee may refuse to perform any duty or exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture, unless the trustee receives indemnity satisfactory to it against any cost, liability or expense that might be incurred by it in performing such duty or exercising such right or power. (Section 7.1(e)) Subject to certain rights of the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to the debt securities of that series. (Section 6.12)

No holder of any debt security of any series will have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to the indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any remedy under the indenture, unless:

 

    that holder has previously given to the trustee written notice of a continuing Event of Default with respect to debt securities of that series; and

 

    the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request, and offered indemnity or security satisfactory to the trustee, to the trustee to institute the proceeding as trustee, and the trustee has not received from the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series a direction inconsistent with that request and has failed to institute the proceeding within 60 days. (Section 6.7)

Notwithstanding any other provision in the indenture, the holder of any debt security will have an absolute and unconditional right to receive payment of the principal of, and premium and any interest on, that debt security on or after the due dates expressed in that debt security and to institute suit for the enforcement of payment. (Section 6.8)

The indenture requires us, within 120 days after the end of our fiscal year, to furnish to the trustee a statement as to compliance with the indenture. (Section 4.3) If a Default or Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the securities of any series and if it is known to a responsible officer of the trustee, the trustee shall mail to each holder of the securities of that series notice of a Default or Event of Default within 90 days after it occurs or, if later, after a responsible officer of the trustee has knowledge of such Default or Event of Default. The indenture provides that the trustee may withhold notice to the holders of debt securities of any series of any Default or Event of Default (except in payment on any debt securities of that series) with respect to debt securities of that series if the trustee determines in good faith that withholding notice is in the interest of the holders of those debt securities. (Section 7.5)

Modification and Waiver

We and the trustee may modify, amend or supplement the indenture or the debt securities of any series without the consent of any holder of any debt security:

 

    to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency;

 

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    to comply with covenants in the indenture described above under the heading “Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets;”

 

    to provide for uncertificated securities in addition to or in place of certificated securities;

 

    to add guarantees with respect to debt securities of any series or secure debt securities of any series;

 

    to surrender any of our rights or powers under the indenture;

 

    to add covenants or Events of Default for the benefit of the holders of debt securities of any series;

 

    to comply with the applicable procedures of the applicable depositary;

 

    to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder of debt securities;

 

    to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of debt securities of any series as permitted by the indenture;

 

    to effect the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the debt securities of any series and to add to or change any of the provisions of the indenture to provide for or facilitate administration by more than one trustee; or

 

    to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act. (Section 9.1)

We may also modify and amend the indenture with the consent of the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series affected by the modifications or amendments. We may not make any modification or amendment without the consent of the holders of each affected debt security then outstanding if that amendment will:

 

    reduce the amount of debt securities whose holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver;

 

    reduce the rate of or extend the time for payment of interest (including default interest) on any debt security;

 

    reduce the principal of or premium on or change the fixed maturity of any debt security or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation with respect to any series of debt securities;

 

    reduce the principal amount of discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity;

 

    waive a Default or Event of Default in the payment of the principal of, or premium or interest on, any debt security (except a rescission of acceleration of the debt securities of any series by the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding debt securities of that series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);

 

    make the principal of, or premium or interest on, any debt security payable in currency other than that stated in the debt security;

 

    make any change to certain provisions of the indenture relating to, among other things, the right of holders of debt securities to receive payment of the principal of, and premium and interest on, those debt securities and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment and to waivers or amendments; or

 

    waive a redemption payment with respect to any debt security. (Section 9.3)

Except for certain specified provisions, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all debt securities of that series waive our compliance with provisions of the indenture. (Section 9.2) The holders of a majority in principal amount of

 

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the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all the debt securities of such series waive any past default under the indenture with respect to that series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, or any interest on, any debt security of that series; provided, however, that the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from the acceleration. (Section 6.13)

Defeasance of Debt Securities and Certain Covenants in Certain Circumstances

Legal Defeasance . The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, we may be discharged from any and all obligations in respect of the debt securities of any series (subject to certain exceptions). We will be so discharged upon the deposit with the trustee, in trust, of money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. dollars, government obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money or U.S. government obligations in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal of, premium and interest on, and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of, the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities.

This discharge may occur only if, among other things, we have delivered to the trustee an opinion of counsel stating that we have received from, or there has been published by, the U.S. Internal Revenue Service a ruling or, since the date of execution of the indenture, there has been a change in the applicable U.S. federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred. (Section 8.3)

Defeasance of Certain Covenants . The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, upon compliance with certain conditions:

 

    we may omit to comply with the covenant described under the heading “Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets” and certain other covenants set forth in the indenture, as well as any additional covenants that may be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement; and

 

    any omission to comply with those covenants will not constitute a Default or an Event of Default with respect to the debt securities of that series (“covenant defeasance”).

The conditions include:

 

    depositing with the trustee money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. dollars, government obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal of, premium and interest on, and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of, the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities; and

 

   

delivering to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that we have received from, or there has been published by, the U.S. Internal Revenue Service a ruling or, since the date of execution of the indenture, there has been a change in the applicable U.S. federal income tax law, in either case to the

 

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effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit and related covenant defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit and related covenant defeasance had not occurred. (Section 8.4)

No Personal Liability of Directors, Officers, Employees or Stockholders

None of our past, present or future directors, officers, employees or stockholders, as such, will have any liability for any of our obligations under the debt securities or the indenture or for any claim based on, or in respect or by reason of, such obligations or their creation. By accepting a debt security, each holder waives and releases all such liability. This waiver and release is part of the consideration for the issue of the debt securities. However, this waiver and release may not be effective to waive liabilities under U.S. federal securities laws, and it is the view of the SEC that such a waiver is against public policy.

Governing Law

The indenture and the debt securities, including any claim or controversy arising out of or relating to the indenture or the debt securities, will be governed by the laws of the State of New York.

The indenture will provide that we, the trustee and the holders of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably waive, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, any and all right to trial by jury in any legal proceeding arising out of or relating to the indenture, the debt securities or the transactions contemplated thereby.

The indenture will provide that any legal suit, action or proceeding arising out of or based upon the indenture or the transactions contemplated thereby may be instituted in the federal courts of the United States of America located in the City of New York or the courts of the State of New York in each case located in the City of New York, and we, the trustee and the holder of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably submit to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of such courts in any such suit, action or proceeding. The indenture will further provide that service of any process, summons, notice or document by mail (to the extent allowed under any applicable statute or rule of court) to such party’s address set forth in the indenture will be effective service of process for any suit, action or other proceeding brought in any such court. The indenture will further provide that we, the trustee and the holders of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably and unconditionally waive any objection to the laying of venue of any suit, action or other proceeding in the courts specified above and irrevocably and unconditionally waive and agree not to plead or claim any such suit, action or other proceeding has been brought in an inconvenient forum. (Section 10.10)

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

We may issue warrants for the purchase of shares of our common stock or preferred stock or of debt securities. We may issue warrants independently or together with other securities, and the warrants may be attached to or separate from any offered securities. Each series of warrants will be issued under a separate warrant agreement to be entered into between us and the investors or a warrant agent. The following summary of material provisions of the warrants and warrant agreements is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the warrant agreement and warrant certificate applicable to a particular series of warrants. The terms of any warrants offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as the complete warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants.

The particular terms of any issue of warrants will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to the issue. Those terms may include:

 

    the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock purchasable upon the exercise of warrants to purchase such shares and the price at which such number of shares may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

    the designation, stated value and terms (including, without limitation, liquidation, dividend, conversion and voting rights) of the series of preferred stock purchasable upon exercise of warrants to purchase preferred stock;

 

    the principal amount of debt securities that may be purchased upon exercise of a debt warrant and the exercise price for the warrants, which may be payable in cash, securities or other property;

 

    the date, if any, on and after which the warrants and the related debt securities, preferred stock or common stock will be separately transferable;

 

    the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;

 

    the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and the date on which the right will expire;

 

    U.S. federal income tax consequences applicable to the warrants; and

 

    any additional terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures, and limitations relating to the exchange, exercise and settlement of the warrants.

Holders of equity warrants will not be entitled to:

 

    vote, consent or receive dividends;

 

    receive notice as stockholders with respect to any meeting of stockholders for the election of our directors or any other matter; or

 

    exercise any rights as stockholders of Conatus.

Each warrant will entitle its holder to purchase the principal amount of debt securities or the number of shares of preferred stock or common stock at the exercise price set forth in, or calculable as set forth in, the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants at any time up to the specified time on the expiration date that we set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.

A holder of warrant certificates may exchange them for new warrant certificates of different denominations, present them for registration of transfer and exercise them at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any

 

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other office indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement. Until any warrants to purchase debt securities are exercised, the holder of the warrants will not have any rights of holders of the debt securities that can be purchased upon exercise, including any rights to receive payments of principal, premium or interest on the underlying debt securities or to enforce covenants in the applicable indenture. Until any warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock are exercised, the holders of the warrants will not have any rights of holders of the underlying common stock or preferred stock, including any rights to receive dividends or payments upon any liquidation, dissolution or winding up on the common stock or preferred stock, if any.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

We may issue units consisting of any combination of the other types of securities offered under this prospectus in one or more series. We may evidence each series of units by unit certificates that we will issue under a separate agreement. We may enter into unit agreements with a unit agent. Each unit agent will be a bank or trust company that we select. We will indicate the name and address of the unit agent in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of units.

The following description, together with the additional information included in any applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes the general features of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. You should read any prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you related to the series of units being offered, as well as the complete unit agreements that contain the terms of the units. Specific unit agreements will contain additional important terms and provisions and we will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from another report that we file with the SEC, the form of each unit agreement relating to units offered under this prospectus.

If we offer any units, certain terms of that series of units will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, including, without limitation, the following, as applicable:

 

    the title of the series of units;

 

    identification and description of the separate constituent securities comprising the units;

 

    the price or prices at which the units will be issued;

 

    the date, if any, on and after which the constituent securities comprising the units will be separately transferable;

 

    a discussion of certain U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the units; and

 

    any other terms of the units and their constituent securities.

 

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GLOBAL SECURITIES

Book-Entry, Delivery and Form

Unless we indicate differently in a prospectus supplement, the securities initially will be issued in book-entry form and represented by one or more global notes or global securities, or, collectively, global securities. The global securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of DTC and registered in the name of Cede & Co., the nominee of DTC. Unless and until it is exchanged for individual certificates evidencing securities under the limited circumstances described below, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by the depositary to its nominee or by the nominee to the depositary, or by the depositary or its nominee to a successor depositary or to a nominee of the successor depositary.

DTC has advised us that it is:

 

    a limited-purpose trust company organized under the New York Banking Law;

 

    a “banking organization” within the meaning of the New York Banking Law;

 

    a member of the Federal Reserve System;

 

    a “clearing corporation” within the meaning of the New York Uniform Commercial Code; and

 

    a “clearing agency” registered pursuant to the provisions of Section 17A of the Exchange Act.

DTC holds securities that its participants deposit with DTC. DTC also facilitates the settlement among its participants of securities transactions, such as transfers and pledges, in deposited securities through electronic computerized book-entry changes in participants’ accounts, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of securities certificates. “Direct participants” in DTC include securities brokers and dealers, including underwriters, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and other organizations. DTC is a wholly-owned subsidiary of The Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation, or DTCC. DTCC is the holding company for DTC, National Securities Clearing Corporation and Fixed Income Clearing Corporation, all of which are registered clearing agencies. DTCC is owned by the users of its regulated subsidiaries. Access to the DTC system is also available to others, which we sometimes refer to as indirect participants, that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a direct participant, either directly or indirectly. The rules applicable to DTC and its participants are on file with the SEC.

Purchases of securities under the DTC system must be made by or through direct participants, which will receive a credit for the securities on DTC’s records. The ownership interest of the actual purchaser of a security, which we sometimes refer to as a beneficial owner, is in turn recorded on the direct and indirect participants’ records. Beneficial owners of securities will not receive written confirmation from DTC of their purchases. However, beneficial owners are expected to receive written confirmations providing details of their transactions, as well as periodic statements of their holdings, from the direct or indirect participants through which they purchased securities. Transfers of ownership interests in global securities are to be accomplished by entries made on the books of participants acting on behalf of beneficial owners. Beneficial owners will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in the global securities, except under the limited circumstances described below.

To facilitate subsequent transfers, all global securities deposited by direct participants with DTC will be registered in the name of DTC’s partnership nominee, Cede & Co., or such other name as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. The deposit of securities with DTC and their registration in the name of Cede & Co. or such other nominee will not change the beneficial ownership of the securities. DTC has no knowledge of the actual beneficial owners of the securities. DTC’s records reflect only the identity of the direct participants to whose accounts the securities are credited, which may or may not be the beneficial owners. The participants are responsible for keeping account of their holdings on behalf of their customers.

 

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So long as the securities are in book-entry form, you will receive payments and may transfer securities only through the facilities of the depositary and its direct and indirect participants. We will maintain an office or agency in the location specified in the prospectus supplement for the applicable securities, where notices and demands in respect of the securities and the indenture may be delivered to us and where certificated securities may be surrendered for payment, registration of transfer or exchange.

Conveyance of notices and other communications by DTC to direct participants, by direct participants to indirect participants and by direct participants and indirect participants to beneficial owners will be governed by arrangements among them, subject to any legal requirements in effect from time to time.

Redemption notices will be sent to DTC. If less than all of the securities of a particular series are being redeemed, DTC’s practice is to determine by lot the amount of the interest of each direct participant in the securities of such series to be redeemed.

Neither DTC nor Cede & Co. (or such other DTC nominee) will consent or vote with respect to the securities. Under its usual procedures, DTC will mail an omnibus proxy to us as soon as possible after the record date. The omnibus proxy assigns the consenting or voting rights of Cede & Co. to those direct participants to whose accounts the securities of such series are credited on the record date, identified in a listing attached to the omnibus proxy.

So long as securities are in book-entry form, we will make payments on those securities to the depositary or its nominee, as the registered owner of such securities, by wire transfer of immediately available funds. If securities are issued in definitive certificated form under the limited circumstances described below, we will have the option of making payments by check mailed to the addresses of the persons entitled to payment or by wire transfer to bank accounts in the United States designated in writing to the applicable trustee or other designated party at least 15 days before the applicable payment date by the persons entitled to payment, unless a shorter period is satisfactory to the applicable trustee or other designated party.

Redemption proceeds, distributions and dividend payments on the securities will be made to Cede & Co., or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. DTC’s practice is to credit direct participants’ accounts upon DTC’s receipt of funds and corresponding detail information from us on the payment date in accordance with their respective holdings shown on DTC records. Payments by participants to beneficial owners will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is the case with securities held for the account of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name.” Those payments will be the responsibility of participants and not of DTC or us, subject to any statutory or regulatory requirements in effect from time to time. Payment of redemption proceeds, distributions and dividend payments to Cede & Co., or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC, is our responsibility; disbursement of payments to direct participants is the responsibility of DTC; and disbursement of payments to the beneficial owners is the responsibility of direct and indirect participants.

Except under the limited circumstances described below, purchasers of securities will not be entitled to have securities registered in their names and will not receive physical delivery of securities. Accordingly, each beneficial owner must rely on the procedures of DTC and its participants to exercise any rights under the securities and the indenture.

The laws of some jurisdictions may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of securities in definitive form. Those laws may impair the ability to transfer or pledge beneficial interests in securities.

DTC may discontinue providing its services as securities depositary with respect to the securities at any time by giving reasonable notice to us. Under such circumstances, in the event that a successor depositary is not obtained, securities certificates are required to be printed and delivered.

 

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As noted above, beneficial owners of a particular series of securities generally will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in those securities. However, if:

 

    DTC notifies us that it is unwilling or unable to continue as a depositary for the global security or securities representing such series of securities or if DTC ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act at a time when it is required to be registered and a successor depositary is not appointed within 90 days of the notification to us or of our becoming aware of DTC’s ceasing to be so registered, as the case may be;

 

    we determine, in our sole discretion, not to have such securities represented by one or more global securities; or

 

    an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing with respect to such series of securities,

we will prepare and deliver certificates for such securities in exchange for beneficial interests in the global securities. Any beneficial interest in a global security that is exchangeable under the circumstances described in the preceding sentence will be exchangeable for securities in definitive certificated form registered in the names that the depositary directs. It is expected that these directions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from its participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the global securities.

We have obtained the information in this section and elsewhere in this prospectus concerning DTC and DTC’s book-entry system from sources that are believed to be reliable, but we take no responsibility for the accuracy of this information.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell the securities from time to time pursuant to underwritten public offerings, negotiated transactions, block trades or a combination of these methods or through underwriters or dealers, through agents and/or directly to one or more purchasers. The securities may be distributed from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

    at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

 

    at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

    at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

    at negotiated prices.

Each time that we sell securities covered by this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement or supplements that will describe the method of distribution and set forth the terms and conditions of the offering of such securities, including the offering price of the securities and the proceeds to us, if applicable.

Offers to purchase the securities being offered by this prospectus may be solicited directly. Agents may also be designated to solicit offers to purchase the securities from time to time. Any agent involved in the offer or sale of our securities will be identified in a prospectus supplement.

If a dealer is utilized in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, the securities will be sold to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell the securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by the dealer at the time of resale.

If an underwriter is utilized in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, an underwriting agreement will be executed with the underwriter at the time of sale and the name of any underwriter will be provided in the prospectus supplement that the underwriter will use to make resales of the securities to the public. In connection with the sale of the securities, we or the purchasers of securities for whom the underwriter may act as agent, may compensate the underwriter in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions. The underwriter may sell the securities to or through dealers, and those dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriters and/or commissions from the purchasers for which they may act as agent. Unless otherwise indicated in a prospectus supplement, an agent will be acting on a best efforts basis and a dealer will purchase securities as a principal, and may then resell the securities at varying prices to be determined by the dealer.

Any compensation paid to underwriters, dealers or agents in connection with the offering of the securities, and any discounts, concessions or commissions allowed by underwriters to participating dealers will be provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. Underwriters, dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act, and any discounts and commissions received by them and any profit realized by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions. We may enter into agreements to indemnify underwriters, dealers and agents against civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribute to payments they may be required to make in respect thereof and to reimburse those persons for certain expenses.

Any common stock or preferred stock will be listed on The Nasdaq Global Market, but any other securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. To facilitate the offering of securities, certain persons participating in the offering may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities. This may include over-allotments or short sales of the securities, which involve the sale by persons participating in the offering of more securities than were sold to them. In these circumstances, these persons would cover such over-allotments or short positions by making purchases in the open market or by exercising their over-allotment option, if any. In addition, these persons may stabilize or maintain the price of the securities

 

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by bidding for or purchasing securities in the open market or by imposing penalty bids, whereby selling concessions allowed to dealers participating in the offering may be reclaimed if securities sold by them are repurchased in connection with stabilization transactions. The effect of these transactions may be to stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. These transactions may be discontinued at any time.

We may engage in at the market offerings into an existing trading market in accordance with Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act. In addition, we may enter into derivative transactions with third parties, or sell securities not covered by this prospectus to third parties in privately negotiated transactions. If the applicable prospectus supplement so indicates, in connection with those derivatives, the third parties may sell securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, including in short sale transactions. If so, the third party may use securities pledged by us or borrowed from us or others to settle those sales or to close out any related open borrowings of stock, and may use securities received from us in settlement of those derivatives to close out any related open borrowings of stock. The third party in such sale transactions will be an underwriter and, if not identified in this prospectus, will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement (or a post-effective amendment). In addition, we may otherwise loan or pledge securities to a financial institution or other third party that in turn may sell the securities short using this prospectus and an applicable prospectus supplement. Such financial institution or other third party may transfer its economic short position to investors in our securities or in connection with a concurrent offering of other securities.

The specific terms of any lock-up provisions in respect of any given offering will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

In compliance with the guidelines of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc., or FINRA, the maximum consideration or discount to be received by any FINRA member or independent broker dealer may not exceed 8% of the aggregate proceeds of the offering.

The underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in transactions with us, or perform services for us, in the ordinary course of business for which they receive compensation.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Latham & Watkins LLP, San Diego, California, will pass upon certain legal matters relating to the issuance and sale of the securities offered hereby on behalf of Conatus Pharmaceuticals Inc. Additional legal matters may be passed upon for us or any underwriters, dealers or agents, by counsel that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.

EXPERTS

Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our consolidated financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016, as set forth in their report, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Ernst & Young LLP’s report, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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LOGO

$100,000,000

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

Units

Common Stock

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

 

 

August     , 2017

 

 

 


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PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

 

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution

The following table sets forth the expenses payable by the registrant in connection with the securities being registered hereby. All amounts are estimates except the SEC registration fee and the FINRA filing fee.

 

SEC registration fee

   $ 11,590  

FINRA filing fee

     15,500  

Printing expenses

     10,000  

Legal fees and expenses

     200,000  

Accounting fees and expenses

     20,000  

Transfer agent and trustee fees and expenses

     10,000  

Miscellaneous

     2,910  
  

 

 

 

Total

   $ 270,000  
  

 

 

 

 

Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers

Section 102 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware permits a corporation to eliminate the personal liability of directors of a corporation to the corporation or its stockholders for monetary damages for a breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except where the director breached his duty of loyalty, failed to act in good faith, engaged in intentional misconduct or knowingly violated a law, authorized the payment of a dividend or approved a stock repurchase in violation of Delaware corporate law or obtained an improper personal benefit. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that no director of the Registrant shall be personally liable to it or its stockholders for monetary damages for any breach of fiduciary duty as a director, notwithstanding any provision of law imposing such liability, except to the extent that the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware prohibits the elimination or limitation of liability of directors for breaches of fiduciary duty.

Section 145 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware provides that a corporation has the power to indemnify a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation, or a person serving at the request of the corporation for another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise in related capacities against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by the person in connection with an action, suit or proceeding to which he was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, ending or completed action, suit or proceeding by reason of such position, if such person acted in good faith and in a manner he reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, and, in any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe his conduct was unlawful, except that, in the case of actions brought by or in the right of the corporation, no indemnification shall be made with respect to any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the corporation unless and only to the extent that the Court of Chancery or other adjudicating court determines that, despite the adjudication of liability but in view of all of the circumstances of the case, such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses which the Court of Chancery or such other court shall deem proper.

Our amended and restated bylaws provide that we will indemnify each person who was or is a party or threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding (other than an action by or in the right of us) by reason of the fact that he or she is or was, or has agreed to become, a director or officer, or is or was serving, or has agreed to serve, at our request as a director, officer, partner, employee or trustee of, or in a similar capacity with, another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise (all such persons being referred to as an “Indemnitee”), or by reason of any action alleged to have been taken or

 

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omitted in such capacity, against all expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred in connection with such action, suit or proceeding and any appeal therefrom, if such Indemnitee acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, our best interests, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, he or she had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful. Our amended and restated bylaws also provide that we will indemnify any Indemnitee who was or is a party to an action or suit by or in the right of us to procure a judgment in our favor by reason of the fact that the Indemnitee is or was, or has agreed to become, a director or officer, or is or was serving, or has agreed to serve, at our request as a director, officer, partner, employee or trustee of, or in a similar capacity with, another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, or by reason of any action alleged to have been taken or omitted in such capacity, against all expenses (including attorneys’ fees) and, to the extent permitted by law, amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred in connection with such action, suit or proceeding, and any appeal therefrom, if the Indemnitee acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, our best interests, except that no indemnification shall be made with respect to any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to us, unless a court determines that, despite such adjudication but in view of all of the circumstances, he or she is entitled to indemnification of such expenses. Notwithstanding the foregoing, to the extent that any Indemnitee has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, he or she will be indemnified by us against all expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred in connection therewith. Expenses must be advanced to an Indemnitee under certain circumstances.

We have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our directors and officers. These indemnification agreements may require us, among other things, to indemnify our directors and officers for some expenses, including attorneys’ fees, judgments, fines and settlement amounts incurred by a director or officer in any action or proceeding arising out of his or her service as one of our directors or officers, or any of our subsidiaries or any other company or enterprise to which the person provides services at our request.

We maintain a general liability insurance policy that covers certain liabilities of directors and officers of our corporation arising out of claims based on acts or omissions in their capacities as directors or officers.

 

Item 16. Exhibits

(a) Exhibits

A list of exhibits filed with this registration statement on Form S-3 is set forth on the Exhibit Index and is incorporated herein by reference.

 

Item 17. Undertakings

(a) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

(i) To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

(ii) To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

 

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(iii) To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

provided , however , that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) above do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:

(A) Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

(B) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5) or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided , however , that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

(6) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities:

The undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

(i) Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

(ii) Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

 

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(iii) The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

(iv) Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

(b) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(h) Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

(j) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act (the “Act”) in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the SEC under Section 305(b)(2) of the Act.

 

II-4


Table of Contents

SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of San Diego, State of California, on the 17th day of August, 2017.

 

CONATUS PHARMACEUTICALS INC.

By:    

 

  /s/ Steven J. Mento, Ph.D.

    Steven J. Mento, Ph.D.
    President and Chief Executive Officer

POWER OF ATTORNEY

KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS , that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints, jointly and severally, Steven J. Mento, Ph.D. and Michelle L. Vandertie, and each one of them, his or her true and lawful attorneys-in-fact and agents, each with full power of substitution, for him or her and in his or her name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to this registration statement, and to sign any registration statement for the same offering covered by this registration statement that is to be effective upon filing pursuant to Rule 462(b) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and all post-effective amendments thereto, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto and all documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents, and each of them full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in and about the premises, as fully to all intents and purposes as he might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming that each of said attorneys-in-fact and agents or any of them, or his or their substitute or substitutes, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this registration statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Signature

  

Title

 

Date

/s/ Steven J. Mento, Ph.D.

Steven J. Mento, Ph.D.

  

President, Chief Executive Officer and Director

(Principal Executive Officer and Principal Financial Officer)

  August 17, 2017
    

/s/ Michelle L. Vandertie

Michelle L. Vandertie

  

Vice President, Finance

(Principal Accounting Officer)

  August 17, 2017
    
    

/s/ David F. Hale

David F. Hale

  

Chairman of the Board

  August 17, 2017
    

/s/ Daniel L. Kisner, M.D.

Daniel L. Kisner, M.D.

  

Director

  August 17, 2017
    

/s/ Preston S. Klassen, M.D., M.H.S.

Preston S. Klassen, M.D., M.H.S.

  

Director

  August 17, 2017


Table of Contents

Signature

  

Title

 

Date

/s/ William R. LaRue

William R. LaRue

  

Director

  August 17, 2017

/s/ James Scopa

James Scopa

  

Director

  August 17, 2017

/s/ Harold Van Wart, Ph.D.

Harold Van Wart, Ph.D.

  

Director

  August 17, 2017
    


Table of Contents

EXHIBIT INDEX

 

Exhibit
Number

 

Description of Document

  1.1*   Form of Underwriting Agreement.
  3.1(1)   Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation.
  3.2(1)   Amended and Restated Bylaws.
  4.1(2)   Specimen Common Stock Certificate.
  4.2(3)   First Amended and Restated Investor Rights Agreement, dated February 9, 2011.
  4.3(3)   Form of Warrant issued to investors in the Registrant’s 2013 bridge financing.
  4.4(2)   Form of Warrant issued to lenders under the Loan and Security Agreement, dated as of July 3, 2013, by and among the Registrant, Oxford Finance LLC, Silicon Valley Bank and the other lenders party thereto.
  4.5*   Form of Preferred Stock Certificate.
  4.6   Form of Indenture.
  4.7*   Form of Debt Security.
  4.8*   Form of Warrant.
  4.9*   Form of Warrant Agreement.
  4.10*   Form of Unit Agreement.
  5.1   Opinion of Latham & Watkins LLP.
12.1   Computation of Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges.
23.1   Consent of Ernst & Young LLP, Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm.
23.2   Consent of Latham & Watkins LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1).
24.1   Power of Attorney (included on signature page hereto).
25.1*   Statement of Eligibility of Trustee on Form T-1 under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended.

 

* If applicable, to be filed by amendment or by a report filed under the Exchange Act and incorporated herein by reference.
(1) Incorporated by reference to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on August 1, 2013.
(2) Incorporated by reference to Amendment No. 2 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 (Registration No. 333-189305), filed with the SEC on July 8, 2013.
(3) Incorporated by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 (Registration No. 333- 189305), filed with the SEC on June 14, 2013.

Exhibit 4.6

 

 

Conatus Pharmaceuticals Inc.

 

 

INDENTURE

Dated as of              , 20             

 

 

[              ]

Trustee

 

 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

            Page  

ARTICLE I. DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

     1  

Section 1.1.

    

Definitions

     1  

Section 1.2.

    

Other Definitions

     4  

Section 1.3.

    

Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act

     5  

Section 1.4.

    

Rules of Construction

     5  

ARTICLE II. THE SECURITIES

     5  

Section 2.1.

    

Issuable in Series

     5  

Section 2.2.

    

Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities

     6  

Section 2.3.

    

Execution and Authentication

     8  

Section 2.4.

    

Registrar and Paying Agent

     9  

Section 2.5.

    

Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust

     10  

Section 2.6.

    

Securityholder Lists

     10  

Section 2.7.

    

Transfer and Exchange

     10  

Section 2.8.

    

Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities

     11  

Section 2.9.

    

Outstanding Securities

     12  

Section 2.10.

    

Treasury Securities

     12  

Section 2.11.

    

Temporary Securities

     12  

Section 2.12.

    

Cancellation

     13  

Section 2.13.

    

Defaulted Interest

     13  

Section 2.14.

    

Global Securities

     13  

Section 2.15.

    

CUSIP Numbers

     15  

ARTICLE III. REDEMPTION

     15  

Section 3.1.

    

Notice to Trustee

     15  

Section 3.2.

    

Selection of Securities to be Redeemed

     15  

Section 3.3.

    

Notice of Redemption

     16  

Section 3.4.

    

Effect of Notice of Redemption

     16  

Section 3.5.

    

Deposit of Redemption Price

     17  

Section 3.6.

    

Securities Redeemed in Part

     17  

ARTICLE IV. COVENANTS

     17  

Section 4.1.

    

Payment of Principal and Interest

     17  

Section 4.2.

    

SEC Reports

     17  

Section 4.3.

    

Compliance Certificate

     18  

Section 4.4.

    

Stay, Extension and Usury Laws

     18  

ARTICLE V. SUCCESSORS

     18  

Section 5.1.

    

When Company May Merge, Etc.

     18  

Section 5.2.

    

Successor Corporation Substituted

     19  

ARTICLE VI. DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES

     19  

Section 6.1.

    

Events of Default

     19  

 

i


Section 6.2.

    

Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment

     20  

Section 6.3.

    

Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee

     21  

Section 6.4.

    

Trustee May File Proofs of Claim

     22  

Section 6.5.

    

Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities

     22  

Section 6.6.

    

Application of Money Collected

     23  

Section 6.7.

    

Limitation on Suits

     23  

Section 6.8.

    

Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal and Interest

     24  

Section 6.9.

    

Restoration of Rights and Remedies

     24  

Section 6.10.

    

Rights and Remedies Cumulative

     24  

Section 6.11.

    

Delay or Omission Not Waiver

     24  

Section 6.12.

    

Control by Holders

     24  

Section 6.13.

    

Waiver of Past Defaults

     25  

Section 6.14.

    

Undertaking for Costs

     25  

ARTICLE VII. TRUSTEE

     26  

Section 7.1.

    

Duties of Trustee

     26  

Section 7.2.

    

Rights of Trustee

     27  

Section 7.3.

    

Individual Rights of Trustee

     28  

Section 7.4.

    

Trustee’s Disclaimer

     28  

Section 7.5.

    

Notice of Defaults

     28  

Section 7.6.

    

Reports by Trustee to Holders

     29  

Section 7.7.

    

Compensation and Indemnity

     29  

Section 7.8.

    

Replacement of Trustee

     30  

Section 7.9.

    

Successor Trustee by Merger, Etc.

     31  

Section 7.10.

    

Eligibility; Disqualification

     31  

Section 7.11.

    

Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company

     31  

ARTICLE VIII. SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE

     31  

Section 8.1.

    

Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture

     31  

Section 8.2.

    

Application of Trust Funds; Indemnification

     32  

Section 8.3.

    

Legal Defeasance of Securities of any Series

     33  

Section 8.4.

    

Covenant Defeasance

     34  

Section 8.5.

    

Repayment to Company

     35  

Section 8.6.

    

Reinstatement

     36  

ARTICLE IX. AMENDMENTS AND WAIVERS

     36  

Section 9.1.

    

Without Consent of Holders

     36  

Section 9.2.

    

With Consent of Holders

     37  

Section 9.3.

    

Limitations

     37  

Section 9.4.

    

Compliance with Trust Indenture Act

     38  

Section 9.5.

    

Revocation and Effect of Consents

     38  

Section 9.6.

    

Notation on or Exchange of Securities

     38  

Section 9.7.

    

Trustee Protected

     39  

ARTICLE X. MISCELLANEOUS

     39  

Section 10.1.

    

Trust Indenture Act Controls

     39  

Section 10.2.

    

Notices

     39  

 

ii


Section 10.3.

    

Communication by Holders with Other Holders

     40  

Section 10.4.

    

Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent

     40  

Section 10.5.

    

Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion

     41  

Section 10.6.

    

Rules by Trustee and Agents

     41  

Section 10.7.

    

Legal Holidays

     41  

Section 10.8.

    

No Recourse Against Others

     41  

Section 10.9.

    

Counterparts

     42  

Section 10.10.

    

Governing Law; Waiver of Jury Trial; Consent to Jurisdiction

     42  

Section 10.11.

    

No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements

     42  

Section 10.12.

    

Successors

     42  

Section 10.13.

    

Severability

     43  

Section 10.14.

    

Table of Contents, Headings, Etc.

     43  

Section 10.15.

    

Securities in a Foreign Currency

     43  

Section 10.16.

    

Judgment Currency

     43  

Section 10.17.

    

Force Majeure

     44  

Section 10.18.

    

U.S.A. Patriot Act

     44  

ARTICLE XI. SINKING FUNDS

     44  

Section 11.1.

    

Applicability of Article

     44  

Section 11.2.

    

Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities

     45  

Section 11.3.

    

Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund

     45  

 

iii


Conatus Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Reconciliation and tie between Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and

Indenture, dated as of                      , 20     

 

  § 310(a)(1)         7.10
  (a)(2)         7.10
  (a)(3)         Not Applicable
  (a)(4)         Not Applicable
  (a)(5)         7.10
  (b)         7.10
  § 311(a)         7.11
  (b)         7.11
  (c)         Not Applicable
  § 312(a)         2.6
  (b)         10.3
  (c)         10.3
  § 313(a)         7.6
  (b)(1)         7.6
  (b)(2)         7.6
  (c)(1)         7.6
  (d)         7.6
  § 314(a)         4.2, 10.5
  (b)         Not Applicable
  (c)(1)         10.4
  (c)(2)         10.4
  (c)(3)         Not Applicable
  (d)         Not Applicable
  (e)         10.5
  (f)         Not Applicable
  § 315(a)         7.1
  (b)         7.5
  (c)         7.1
  (d)         7.1
  (e)         6.14
  § 316(a)         2.10
  (a)(1)(A)         6.12
  (a)(1)(B)         6.13
  (b)         6.8
  § 317(a)(1)         6.3
  (a)(2)         6.4
  (b)         2.5
  § 318(a)         10.1

 

Note:    This reconciliation and tie shall not, for any purpose, be deemed to be part of the Indenture.

 

iv


Indenture dated as of                  , 20      between Conatus Pharmaceuticals Inc., a Delaware corporation (“ Company ”), and [              ] (“ Trustee ”).

Each party agrees as follows for the benefit of the other party and for the equal and ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities issued under this Indenture.

ARTICLE I.

DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

Section 1.1.  Definitions.

Additional Amounts ” means any additional amounts which are required hereby or by any Security, under circumstances specified herein or therein, to be paid by the Company in respect of certain taxes imposed on Holders specified herein or therein and which are owing to such Holders.

Affiliate ” of any specified person means any other person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under common control with such specified person. For the purposes of this definition, “control” (including, with correlative meanings, the terms “controlled by” and “under common control with”), as used with respect to any person, shall mean the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of such person, whether through the ownership of voting securities or by agreement or otherwise.

Agent ” means any Registrar, Paying Agent or Notice Agent.

Board of Directors ” means the board of directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee thereof.

Board Resolution ” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been adopted by the Board of Directors or pursuant to authorization by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of the certificate and delivered to the Trustee.

Business Day ” means, unless otherwise provided by Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture hereto for a particular Series, any day except a Saturday, Sunday or a legal holiday in The City of New York, New York (or in connection with any payment, the place of payment) on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law, regulation or executive order to close.

Capital Stock ” means any and all shares, interests, participations, rights or other equivalents (however designated) of corporate stock.

Company ” means the party named as such above until a successor replaces it and thereafter means the successor.

Company Order ” means a written order signed in the name of the Company by an Officer.


Corporate Trust Office ” means the office of the Trustee at which at any particular time its corporate trust business related to this Indenture shall be principally administered.

Default ” means any event which is, or after notice or passage of time or both would be, an Event of Default.

Depositary ” means, with respect to the Securities of any Series issuable or issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, the person designated as Depositary for such Series by the Company, which Depositary shall be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act; and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Depositary” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Depositary with respect to the Securities of such Series.

Discount Security ” means any Security that provides for an amount less than the stated principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2.

Dollars ” and “ $ ” means the currency of the United States of America.

Exchange Act ” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

Foreign Currency ” means any currency or currency unit issued by a government other than the government of the United States of America.

Foreign Government Obligations ” means, with respect to Securities of any Series that are denominated in a Foreign Currency, direct obligations of, or obligations guaranteed by, the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.

GAAP ” means accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America set forth in the opinions and pronouncements of the Accounting Principles Board of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and statements and pronouncements of the Financial Accounting Standards Board or in such other statements by such other entity as have been approved by a significant segment of the accounting profession, which are in effect as of the date of determination.

Global Security ” or “ Global Securities ” means a Security or Securities, as the case may be, in the form established pursuant to Section 2.2 evidencing all or part of a Series of Securities, issued to the Depositary for such Series or its nominee, and registered in the name of such Depositary or nominee.

Holder ” or “ Securityholder ” means a person in whose name a Security is registered.

 

2


Indenture ” means this Indenture as amended or supplemented from time to time and shall include the form and terms of particular Series of Securities established as contemplated hereunder.

interest ” with respect to any Discount Security which by its terms bears interest only after Maturity, means interest payable after Maturity.

Maturity ,” when used with respect to any Security, means the date on which the principal of such Security becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption or otherwise.

Officer ” means the Chief Executive Officer, the President, the Chief Financial Officer, the Treasurer or any Assistant Treasurer, the Secretary or any Assistant Secretary, and any Vice President of the Company.

Officer’s Certificate ” means a certificate signed by any Officer.

Opinion of Counsel ” means a written opinion of legal counsel who is acceptable to the Trustee. The counsel may be an employee of or counsel to the Company.

person ” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, association, limited liability company, joint-stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.

principal ” of a Security means the principal of the Security plus, when appropriate, the premium, if any, on, and any Additional Amounts in respect of, the Security.

Responsible Officer ” means any officer of the Trustee in its Corporate Trust Office having responsibility for administration of this Indenture and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom any corporate trust matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with a particular subject.

SEC ” means the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Securities ” means the debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company of any Series authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

Series ” or “ Series of Securities ” means each series of debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company created pursuant to Sections 2.1 and 2.2 hereof.

Stated Maturity ” when used with respect to any Security, means the date specified in such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security or interest is due and payable.

Subsidiary ” of any specified person means any corporation, association or other business entity of which more than 50% of the total voting power of shares of Capital Stock entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors,

 

3


managers or trustees thereof is at the time owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by such person or one or more of the other Subsidiaries of that person or a combination thereof.

TIA ” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 (15 U.S. Code §§ 77aaa-77bbbb) as in effect on the date of this Indenture; provided , however , that in the event the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 is amended after such date, “TIA” means, to the extent required by any such amendment, the Trust Indenture Act as so amended.

Trustee ” means the person named as the “Trustee” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor Trustee shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Trustee” shall mean or include each person who is then a Trustee hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Trustee with respect to Securities of that Series.

U.S. Government Obligations ” means securities which are direct obligations of, or guaranteed by, the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such U.S. Government Obligation or a specific payment of interest on or principal of any such U.S. Government Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of a depository receipt, provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the U.S. Government Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.

Section 1.2.  Other Definitions .

 

TERM

   DEFINED IN
SECTION

“Bankruptcy Law”

   6.1

“Custodian”

   6.1

“Event of Default”

   6.1

“Judgment Currency”

   10.16

“Legal Holiday”

   10.7

“mandatory sinking fund payment”

   11.1

“Market Exchange Rate”

   10.15

“New York Banking Day”

   10.16

“Notice Agent”

   2.4

“optional sinking fund payment”

   11.1

“Paying Agent”

   2.4

“Registrar”

   2.4

“Required Currency”

   10.16

“Specified Courts”

   10.10

“successor person”

   5.1

 

4


Section 1.3.  Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act .

Whenever this Indenture refers to a provision of the TIA, the provision is incorporated by reference in and made a part of this Indenture. The following TIA terms used in this Indenture have the following meanings:

Commission ” means the SEC.

indenture securities ” means the Securities.

indenture security holder ” means a Securityholder.

indenture to be qualified ” means this Indenture.

indenture trustee ” or “ institutional trustee ” means the Trustee.

obligor ” on the indenture securities means the Company and any successor obligor upon the Securities.

All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the TIA, defined by TIA reference to another statute or defined by SEC rule under the TIA and not otherwise defined herein are used herein as so defined.

Section 1.4.  Rules of Construction .

Unless the context otherwise requires:

(a) a term has the meaning assigned to it;

(b) an accounting term not otherwise defined has the meaning assigned to it in accordance with GAAP;

(c) “or” is not exclusive;

(d) words in the singular include the plural, and in the plural include the singular; and

(e) provisions apply to successive events and transactions.

ARTICLE II.

THE SECURITIES

Section 2.1.  Issuable in Series .

The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more Series. All Securities of a Series shall be identical except as may be set forth or determined in the manner provided in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate detailing the adoption of the terms thereof pursuant to authority granted under a

 

5


Board Resolution. In the case of Securities of a Series to be issued from time to time, the Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture hereto detailing the adoption of the terms thereof pursuant to authority granted under a Board Resolution may provide for the method by which specified terms (such as interest rate, maturity date, record date or date from which interest shall accrue) are to be determined. Securities may differ between Series in respect of any matters, provided that all Series of Securities shall be equally and ratably entitled to the benefits of this Indenture.

Section 2.2.  Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities .

At or prior to the issuance of any Securities within a Series, the following shall be established (as to the Series generally, in the case of Subsection 2.2.1 and either as to such Securities within the Series or as to the Series generally in the case of Subsections 2.2.2 through 2.2.23) by or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth or determined in the manner provided in a Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate:

2.2.1. the title (which shall distinguish the Securities of that particular Series from the Securities of any other Series) and ranking (including the terms of any subordination provisions) of the Series;

2.2.2. the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount thereof) at which the Securities of the Series will be issued;

2.2.3. any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the Series which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the Series pursuant to Section 2.7, 2.8, 2.11, 3.6 or 9.6);

2.2.4. the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the Series is payable;

2.2.5. the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or, if applicable, the method used to determine such rate or rates (including, but not limited to, any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the Securities of the Series shall bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which such interest, if any, shall accrue, the date or dates on which such interest, if any, shall commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date;

2.2.6. the place or places where the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series shall be payable, where the Securities of such Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange and where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of such Series and this Indenture may be delivered, and the method of such payment, if by wire transfer, mail or other means;

2.2.7. if applicable, the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which the Securities of the Series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;

 

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2.2.8. the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase the Securities of the Series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the Series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

2.2.9. the dates, if any, on which and the price or prices at which the Securities of the Series will be repurchased by the Company at the option of the Holders thereof and other detailed terms and provisions of such repurchase obligations;

2.2.10. if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the Series shall be issuable;

2.2.11. the forms of the Securities of the Series and whether the Securities will be issuable as Global Securities;

2.2.12. if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of the Securities of the Series that shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2;

2.2.13. the currency of denomination of the Securities of the Series, which may be Dollars or any Foreign Currency, and if such currency of denomination is a composite currency, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;

2.2.14. the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be made;

2.2.15. if payments of principal of or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series are to be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which such Securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to such payments will be determined;

2.2.16. the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be determined, if such amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;

2.2.17. the provisions, if any, relating to any security provided for the Securities of the Series;

2.2.18. any addition to, deletion of or change in the Events of Default which applies to any Securities of the Series and any change in the right of the Trustee or the requisite Holders of such Securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable pursuant to Section 6.2;

2.2.19. any addition to, deletion of or change in the covenants set forth in Articles IV or V hereof which applies to Securities of the Series;

 

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2.2.20. any Depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to Securities of such Series if other than those appointed herein;

2.2.21. the provisions, if any, relating to conversion or exchange of any Securities of such Series, including if applicable, the conversion price or exchange price, the conversion or exchange period, provisions as to whether conversion or exchange will be mandatory, at the option of the Holders thereof or at the option of the Company, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price or exchange price and provisions affecting conversion or exchange if such Series of Securities are redeemed;

2.2.22. any other terms of the Securities of the Series (which may supplement, modify or delete any provision of this Indenture insofar as it applies to such Series), including any terms that may be required under applicable law or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that Series; and

2.2.23. whether any of the Company’s direct or indirect Subsidiaries will guarantee the Securities of that Series, including the terms of subordination, if any, of such guarantees.

All Securities of any one Series need not be issued at the same time and may be issued from time to time, consistent with the terms of this Indenture, if so provided by or pursuant to the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate referred to above.

Section 2.3.  Execution and Authentication .

An Officer shall sign the Securities for the Company by manual or facsimile signature.

If an Officer whose signature is on a Security no longer holds that office at the time the Security is authenticated, the Security shall nevertheless be valid.

A Security shall not be valid until authenticated by the manual or facsimile signature of the Trustee or an authenticating agent. The signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security has been authenticated under this Indenture.

The Trustee shall at any time, and from time to time, authenticate Securities for original issue in the principal amount provided in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate, upon receipt by the Trustee of a Company Order. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication.

The aggregate principal amount of Securities of any Series outstanding at any time may not exceed any limit upon the maximum principal amount for such Series set forth in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2, except as provided in Section 2.8.

 

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Prior to the issuance of Securities of any Series, the Trustee shall have received and (subject to Section 7.2) shall be fully protected in relying on: (a) the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate establishing the form of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series and the terms of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series, (b) an Officer’s Certificate complying with Section 10.4, and (c) an Opinion of Counsel complying with Section 10.4.

The Trustee shall have the right to decline to authenticate and deliver any Securities of such Series: (a) if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, determines that such action may not be taken lawfully; or (b) if the Trustee in good faith by its board of directors or trustees, executive committee or a trust committee of directors and/or vice presidents or a committee of Responsible Officers shall determine that such action would expose the Trustee to personal liability to Holders of any then outstanding Series of Securities.

The Trustee may appoint an authenticating agent acceptable to the Company to authenticate Securities. An authenticating agent may authenticate Securities whenever the Trustee may do so. Each reference in this Indenture to authentication by the Trustee includes authentication by such agent. An authenticating agent has the same rights as an Agent to deal with the Company or an Affiliate of the Company.

Section 2.4.  Registrar and Paying Agent .

The Company shall maintain, with respect to each Series of Securities, at the place or places specified with respect to such Series pursuant to Section 2.2, an office or agency where Securities of such Series may be presented or surrendered for payment (“ Paying Agent ”), where Securities of such Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange (“ Registrar ”) and where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of such Series and this Indenture may be delivered (“ Notice Agent ”). The Registrar shall keep a register with respect to each Series of Securities and to their transfer and exchange. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the name and address, and any change in the name or address, of each Registrar, Paying Agent or Notice Agent. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required Registrar, Paying Agent or Notice Agent or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the name and address thereof, such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands; provided , however, that any appointment of the Trustee as the Notice Agent shall exclude the appointment of the Trustee or any office of the Trustee as an agent to receive the service of legal process on the Company.

The Company may also from time to time designate one or more co-registrars, additional paying agents or additional notice agents and may from time to time rescind such designations; provided , however , that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Company of its obligations to maintain a Registrar, Paying Agent and Notice Agent in each place so specified pursuant to Section 2.2 for Securities of any Series for such purposes. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of any such designation or rescission and of any change in the name or address of any such co-registrar, additional paying agent or additional notice agent. The term “ Registrar ” includes any co-registrar; the term

 

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Paying Agent ” includes any additional paying agent; and the term “ Notice Agent ” includes any additional notice agent. The Company or any of its Affiliates may serve as Registrar or Paying Agent.

The Company hereby appoints the Trustee the initial Registrar, Paying Agent and Notice Agent for each Series unless another Registrar, Paying Agent or Notice Agent, as the case may be, is appointed prior to the time Securities of that Series are first issued.

Section 2.5.  Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust .

The Company shall require each Paying Agent other than the Trustee to agree in writing that the Paying Agent will hold in trust, for the benefit of Securityholders of any Series of Securities, or the Trustee, all money held by the Paying Agent for the payment of principal of or interest on the Series of Securities, and will notify the Trustee in writing of any default by the Company in making any such payment. While any such default continues, the Trustee may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee. The Company at any time may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee. Upon payment over to the Trustee, the Paying Agent (if other than the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company) shall have no further liability for the money. If the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company acts as Paying Agent, it shall segregate and hold in a separate trust fund for the benefit of Securityholders of any Series of Securities all money held by it as Paying Agent. Upon any bankruptcy, reorganization or similar proceeding with respect to the Company, the Trustee shall serve as Paying Agent for the Securities.

Section 2.6.  Securityholder Lists .

The Trustee shall preserve in as current a form as is reasonably practicable the most recent list available to it of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities and shall otherwise comply with TIA § 312(a). If the Trustee is not the Registrar, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee at least ten days before each interest payment date and at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing a list, in such form and as of such date as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities.

Section 2.7.  Transfer and Exchange .

Where Securities of a Series are presented to the Registrar or a co-registrar with a request to register a transfer or to exchange them for an equal principal amount of Securities of the same Series, the Registrar shall register the transfer or make the exchange if its requirements for such transactions are met. To permit registrations of transfers and exchanges, the Trustee shall authenticate Securities at the Registrar’s request. No service charge shall be made for any registration of transfer or exchange (except as otherwise expressly permitted herein), but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any transfer tax or similar governmental charge payable in connection therewith (other than any such transfer tax or similar governmental charge payable upon exchanges pursuant to Sections 2.11, 3.6 or 9.6).

Neither the Company nor the Registrar shall be required (a) to issue, register the transfer of, or exchange Securities of any Series for the period beginning at the opening of

 

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business fifteen days immediately preceding the sending of a notice of redemption of Securities of that Series selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day such notice is sent, or (b) to register the transfer of or exchange Securities of any Series selected, called or being called for redemption as a whole or the portion being redeemed of any such Securities selected, called or being called for redemption in part.

Section 2.8.  Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities .

If any mutilated Security is surrendered to the Trustee, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange therefor a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.

If there shall be delivered to the Company and the Trustee (i) evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of any Security and (ii) such security or indemnity bond as may be required by each of them to hold itself and any of its agents harmless, then, in the absence of notice to the Company or the Trustee that such Security has been acquired by a bona fide purchaser, the Company shall execute and upon its request the Trustee shall authenticate and make available for delivery, in lieu of any such destroyed, lost or stolen Security, a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.

In case any such mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security has become or is about to become due and payable, the Company in its discretion may, instead of issuing a new Security, pay such Security.

Upon the issuance of any new Security under this Section, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.

Every new Security of any Series issued pursuant to this Section in lieu of any destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall constitute an original additional contractual obligation of the Company, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of that Series duly issued hereunder.

The provisions of this Section are exclusive and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) all other rights and remedies with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities.

 

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Section 2.9.  Outstanding Securities .

The Securities outstanding at any time are all the Securities authenticated by the Trustee except for those canceled by it, those delivered to it for cancellation, those reductions in the interest on a Global Security effected by the Trustee in accordance with the provisions hereof and those described in this Section as not outstanding.

If a Security is replaced pursuant to Section 2.8, it ceases to be outstanding until the Trustee receives proof satisfactory to it that the replaced Security is held by a bona fide purchaser.

If the Paying Agent (other than the Company, a Subsidiary of the Company or an Affiliate of the Company) holds on the Maturity of Securities of a Series money sufficient to pay such Securities payable on that date, then on and after that date such Securities of the Series cease to be outstanding and interest on them ceases to accrue.

The Company may purchase or otherwise acquire the Securities, whether by open market purchases, negotiated transactions or otherwise. A Security does not cease to be outstanding because the Company or an Affiliate of the Company holds the Security (but see Section 2.10 below).

In determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of outstanding Securities have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder, the principal amount of a Discount Security that shall be deemed to be outstanding for such purposes shall be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon a declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2.

Section 2.10.  Treasury Securities .

In determining whether the Holders of the required principal amount of Securities of a Series have concurred in any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver, Securities of a Series owned by the Company or any Affiliate of the Company shall be disregarded, except that for the purposes of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver only Securities of a Series that a Responsible Officer of the Trustee knows are so owned shall be so disregarded.

Section 2.11.  Temporary Securities .

Until definitive Securities are ready for delivery, the Company may prepare and the Trustee shall authenticate temporary Securities upon a Company Order. Temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of definitive Securities but may have variations that the Company considers appropriate for temporary Securities. Without unreasonable delay, the Company shall prepare and the Trustee upon receipt of a Company Order shall authenticate definitive Securities of the same Series and date of maturity in exchange for temporary Securities. Until so exchanged, temporary securities shall have the same rights under this Indenture as the definitive Securities.

 

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Section 2.12.  Cancellation .

The Company at any time may deliver Securities to the Trustee for cancellation. The Registrar and the Paying Agent shall forward to the Trustee any Securities surrendered to them for registration of transfer, exchange or payment. The Trustee shall cancel all Securities surrendered for transfer, exchange, payment, replacement or cancellation and shall destroy such canceled Securities (subject to the record retention requirements of the Exchange Act and the Trustee) and deliver a certificate of such cancellation to the Company upon written request of the Company. The Company may not issue new Securities to replace Securities that it has paid or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

Section 2.13.  Defaulted Interest .

If the Company defaults in a payment of interest on a Series of Securities, it shall pay the defaulted interest, plus, to the extent permitted by law, any interest payable on the defaulted interest, to the persons who are Securityholders of the Series on a subsequent special record date. The Company shall fix the record date and payment date. At least 10 days before the special record date, the Company shall mail to the Trustee and to each Securityholder of the Series a notice that states the special record date, the payment date and the amount of interest to be paid. The Company may pay defaulted interest in any other lawful manner.

Section 2.14.  Global Securities .

2.14.1.  Terms of Securities . A Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate shall establish whether the Securities of a Series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities and the Depositary for such Global Security or Securities.

2.14.2.  Transfer and Exchange . Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary contained in Section 2.7 of this Indenture and in addition thereto, any Global Security shall be exchangeable pursuant to Section 2.7 of this Indenture for Securities registered in the names of Holders other than the Depositary for such Security or its nominee only if (i) such Depositary notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such Global Security or if at any time such Depositary ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and, in either case, the Company fails to appoint a successor Depositary registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act within 90 days of such event or (ii) the Company executes and delivers to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate to the effect that such Global Security shall be so exchangeable. Any Global Security that is exchangeable pursuant to the preceding sentence shall be exchangeable for Securities registered in such names as the Depositary shall direct in writing in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security with like tenor and terms.

Except as provided in this Section 2.14.2, a Global Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary with respect to such Global Security to a nominee of such Depositary, by a nominee of such Depositary to such Depositary or another nominee of such Depositary or by the Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary or a nominee of such a successor Depositary.

 

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2.14.3.  Legends . Any Global Security issued hereunder shall bear a legend in substantially the following form:

“THIS SECURITY IS A GLOBAL SECURITY WITHIN THE MEANING OF THE INDENTURE HEREINAFTER REFERRED TO AND IS REGISTERED IN THE NAME OF THE DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY. THIS SECURITY IS EXCHANGEABLE FOR SECURITIES REGISTERED IN THE NAME OF A PERSON OTHER THAN THE DEPOSITARY OR ITS NOMINEE ONLY IN THE LIMITED CIRCUMSTANCES DESCRIBED IN THE INDENTURE, AND MAY NOT BE TRANSFERRED EXCEPT AS A WHOLE BY THE DEPOSITARY TO A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY, BY A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY TO THE DEPOSITARY OR ANOTHER NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY OR BY THE DEPOSITARY OR ANY SUCH NOMINEE TO A SUCCESSOR DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE OF SUCH A SUCCESSOR DEPOSITARY.”

In addition, so long as the Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) is the Depositary, each Global Note registered in the name of DTC or its nominee shall bear a legend in substantially the following form:

“UNLESS THIS GLOBAL NOTE IS PRESENTED BY AN AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE OF THE DEPOSITORY TRUST COMPANY, A NEW YORK CORPORATION (“DTC”), TO THE ISSUER OR ITS AGENT FOR REGISTRATION OF TRANSFER, EXCHANGE OR PAYMENT, AND ANY GLOBAL NOTE ISSUED IS REGISTERED IN THE NAME OF CEDE & CO. OR IN SUCH OTHER NAME AS IS REQUESTED BY AN AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE OF DTC (AND ANY PAYMENT IS MADE TO CEDE & CO. OR TO SUCH OTHER ENTITY AS IS REQUESTED BY AN AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE OF DTC), ANY TRANSFER, PLEDGE OR OTHER USE HEREOF FOR VALUE OR OTHERWISE BY OR TO ANY PERSON IS WRONGFUL INASMUCH AS THE REGISTERED OWNER HEREOF, CEDE & CO., HAS AN INTEREST HEREIN.”

2.14.4.  Acts of Holders . The Depositary, as a Holder, may appoint agents and otherwise authorize participants to give or take any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action which a Holder is entitled to give or take under this Indenture.

2.14.5.  Payments . Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Indenture, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.2, payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on any Global Security shall be made to the Holder thereof.

2.14.6.  Consents, Declaration and Directions . The Company, the Trustee and any Agent shall treat a person as the Holder of such principal amount of outstanding Securities of such Series represented by a Global Security as shall be specified in a written statement of the Depositary or by the applicable procedures of such Depositary with respect to such Global Security, for purposes of obtaining any consents, declarations, waivers or directions required to be given by the Holders pursuant to this Indenture.

 

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Section 2.15.  CUSIP Numbers .

The Company in issuing the Securities may use “CUSIP” numbers (if then generally in use), and, if so, the Trustee shall use “CUSIP” numbers in notices of redemption as a convenience to Holders; provided that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness of such numbers either as printed on the Securities or as contained in any notice of a redemption and that reliance may be placed only on the other elements of identification printed on the Securities, and any such redemption shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of such numbers.

ARTICLE III.

REDEMPTION

Section 3.1.  Notice to Trustee .

The Company may, with respect to any Series of Securities, reserve the right to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or may covenant to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or any part thereof prior to the Stated Maturity thereof at such time and on such terms as provided for in such Securities. If a Series of Securities is redeemable and the Company wants or is obligated to redeem prior to the Stated Maturity thereof all or part of the Series of Securities pursuant to the terms of such Securities, it shall notify the Trustee in writing of the redemption date and the principal amount of Series of Securities to be redeemed. The Company shall give the notice at least 15 days before the redemption date, unless a shorter period is satisfactory to the Trustee.

Section 3.2.  Selection of Securities to be Redeemed .

Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate, if less than all the Securities of a Series are to be redeemed, the Securities of the Series to be redeemed will be selected as follows: (a) if the Securities are in the form of Global Securities, in accordance with the procedures of the Depositary, (b) if the Securities are listed on any national securities exchange, in compliance with the requirements of the principal national securities exchange, if any, on which the Securities are listed, or (c) if not otherwise provided for under clause (a) or (b) in the manner that the Trustee deems fair and appropriate, including by lot or other method, unless otherwise required by law or applicable stock exchange requirements, subject, in the case of Global Securities, to the applicable rules and procedures of the Depositary. The Securities to be redeemed shall be selected from Securities of the Series outstanding not previously called for redemption. Portions of the principal of Securities of the Series that have denominations larger than $1,000 may be selected for redemption. Securities of the Series and portions of them it selected for redemption shall be in amounts of $1,000 or whole multiples of $1,000 or, with respect to Securities of any Series issuable in other denominations pursuant to Section 2.2.10, the minimum principal denomination for each Series and the authorized integral multiples thereof. Provisions of this Indenture that apply to Securities of a Series called for redemption also apply to portions of Securities of that Series called for redemption.

 

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Section 3.3.  Notice of Redemption .

Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate, at least 15 days but not more than 60 days before a redemption date, the Company shall send or cause to be sent by first-class mail or electronically, in accordance with the procedures of the Depositary, a notice of redemption to each Holder whose Securities are to be redeemed.

The notice shall identify the Securities of the Series to be redeemed and shall state:

(a) the redemption date;

(b) the redemption price;

(c) the name and address of the Paying Agent;

(d) if any Securities are being redeemed in part, the portion of the principal amount of such Securities to be redeemed and that, after the redemption date and upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the original Security shall be issued in the name of the Holder thereof upon cancellation of the original Security;

(e) that Securities of the Series called for redemption must be surrendered to the Paying Agent to collect the redemption price;

(f) that interest on Securities of the Series called for redemption ceases to accrue on and after the redemption date unless the Company defaults in the deposit of the redemption price;

(g) the CUSIP number, if any; and

(h) any other information as may be required by the terms of the particular Series or the Securities of a Series being redeemed.

At the Company’s request, the Trustee shall give the notice of redemption in the Company’s name and at its expense, provided, however, that the Company has delivered to the Trustee, at least 10 days (unless a shorter time shall be acceptable to the Trustee) prior to the notice date, an Officer’s Certificate requesting that the Trustee give such notice and setting forth the information to be stated in such notice.

Section 3.4.  Effect of Notice of Redemption .

Once notice of redemption is sent as provided in Section 3.3, Securities of a Series called for redemption become due and payable on the redemption date and at the redemption price. Except as otherwise provided in the supplemental indenture hereto, Board Resolution or Officer’s Certificate for a Series of Securities, a notice of redemption pertaining to

 

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such Series may not be conditional. Upon surrender to the Paying Agent, such Securities shall be paid at the redemption price plus accrued interest to the redemption date.

Section 3.5.  Deposit of Redemption Price .

On or before 11:00 a.m., New York City time, on the redemption date, the Company shall deposit with the Paying Agent money sufficient to pay the redemption price of and accrued interest, if any, on all Securities to be redeemed on that date.

Section 3.6.  Securities Redeemed in Part .

Upon surrender of a Security that is redeemed in part, the Trustee shall authenticate for the Holder a new Security of the same Series and the same maturity equal in principal amount to the unredeemed portion of the Security surrendered.

ARTICLE IV.

COVENANTS

Section 4.1.  Payment of Principal and Interest .

The Company covenants and agrees for the benefit of the Holders of each Series of Securities that it will duly and punctually pay the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of that Series in accordance with the terms of such Securities and this Indenture. On or before 11:00 a.m., New York City time, on the applicable payment date, the Company shall deposit with the Paying Agent money sufficient to pay the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of each Series in accordance with the terms of such Securities and this Indenture.

Section 4.2.  SEC Reports .

To the extent any Securities of a Series are outstanding, the Company shall deliver to the Trustee within 15 days after it files them with the SEC copies of the annual reports and of the information, documents, and other reports (or copies of such portions of any of the foregoing as the SEC may by rules and regulations prescribe) which the Company is required to file with the SEC pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act. The Company also shall comply with the other provisions of TIA § 314(a). Reports, information and documents filed with the SEC via the EDGAR system will be deemed to be delivered to the Trustee as of the time of such filing via EDGAR for purposes of this Section 4.2.

Delivery of reports, information and documents to the Trustee under this Section 4.2 are for informational purposes only and the Trustee’s receipt of the foregoing shall not constitute constructive or actual notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including the Company’s compliance with any of their covenants hereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on Officer’s Certificates).

 

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Section 4.3.  Compliance Certificate .

To the extent any Securities of a Series are outstanding, the Company shall deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year of the Company, an Officer’s Certificate stating that a review of the activities of the Company and its Subsidiaries during the preceding fiscal year has been made under the supervision of the signing Officer with a view to determining whether the Company has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled its obligations under this Indenture, and further stating, as to such Officer signing such certificate, that to the best of his/her knowledge the Company has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled each and every covenant contained in this Indenture and is not in default in the performance or observance of any of the terms, provisions and conditions hereof (or, if a Default or Event of Default shall have occurred, describing all such Defaults or Events of Default of which such Officer may have knowledge).

Section 4.4.  Stay, Extension and Usury Laws .

The Company covenants (to the extent that it may lawfully do so) that it will not at any time insist upon, plead, or in any manner whatsoever claim or take the benefit or advantage of, any stay, extension or usury law wherever enacted, now or at any time hereafter in force, which may affect the covenants or the performance of this Indenture or the Securities; and the Company (to the extent it may lawfully do so) hereby expressly waives all benefit or advantage of any such law and covenants that it will not, by resort to any such law, hinder, delay or impede the execution of any power herein granted to the Trustee, but will suffer and permit the execution of every such power as though no such law has been enacted.

ARTICLE V.

SUCCESSORS

Section 5.1.  When Company May Merge, Etc .

The Company shall not consolidate with or merge with or into, or convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all of its properties and assets to, any person (a “successor person”) unless:

(a) the Company is the surviving corporation or the successor person (if other than the Company) is a corporation organized and validly existing under the laws of any U.S. domestic jurisdiction and expressly assumes the Company’s obligations on the Securities and under this Indenture; and

(b) immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Default or Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing.

The Company shall deliver to the Trustee prior to the consummation of the proposed transaction an Officer’s Certificate to the foregoing effect and an Opinion of Counsel stating that the proposed transaction and any supplemental indenture hereto comply with this Indenture.

 

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Notwithstanding the above, any Subsidiary of the Company may consolidate with, merge into or transfer all or part of its properties to the Company. Neither an Officer’s Certificate nor an Opinion of Counsel shall be required to be delivered in connection therewith.

Section 5.2.  Successor Corporation Substituted .

Upon any consolidation or merger, or any sale, lease, conveyance or other disposition of all or substantially all of the assets of the Company in accordance with Section 5.1, the successor corporation formed by such consolidation or into or with which the Company is merged or to which such sale, lease, conveyance or other disposition is made shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, the Company under this Indenture with the same effect as if such successor person has been named as the Company herein; provided , however , that the predecessor Company in the case of a sale, conveyance or other disposition (other than a lease) shall be released from all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.

ARTICLE VI.

DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES

Section 6.1.  Events of Default .

Event of Default ,” wherever used herein with respect to Securities of any Series, means any one of the following events, unless in the establishing Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate, it is provided that such Series shall not have the benefit of said Event of Default:

(a) default in the payment of any interest on any Security of that Series when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days (unless the entire amount of such payment is deposited by the Company with the Trustee or with a Paying Agent prior to 11:00 a.m., New York City time, on the 30 th day of such period); or

(b) default in the payment of principal of any Security of that Series at its Maturity; or

(c) default in the performance or breach of any covenant or warranty of the Company in this Indenture (other than defaults pursuant to paragraphs (a) or (b) above or pursuant to a covenant or warranty that has been included in this Indenture solely for the benefit of Series of Securities other than that Series), which default continues uncured for a period of 60 days after there has been given, by registered or certified mail, to the Company by the Trustee or to the Company and the Trustee by the Holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series a written notice specifying such default or breach and requiring it to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder; or

(d) the Company pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law:

(i) commences a voluntary case,

 

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(ii) consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case,

(iii) consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property,

(iv) makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors, or

(v) generally is unable to pay its debts as the same become due; or

(e) a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order or decree under any Bankruptcy Law that:

(i) is for relief against the Company in an involuntary case,

(ii) appoints a Custodian of the Company or for all or substantially all of its property, or

(iii) orders the liquidation of the Company,

and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 60 days; or

(f) any other Event of Default provided with respect to Securities of that Series, which is specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate, in accordance with Section 2.2.18.

The term “ Bankruptcy Law ” means title 11, U.S. Code or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors. The term “ Custodian ” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

The Company will provide the Trustee written notice of any Default or Event of Default within 30 days of becoming aware of the occurrence of such Default or Event of Default, which notice will describe in reasonable detail the status of such Default or Event of Default and what action the Company is taking or proposes to take in respect thereof.

Section 6.2.  Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment .

If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of any Series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing (other than an Event of Default referred to in Section 6.1(d) or (e)) then in every such case the Trustee or the Holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series may declare the principal amount (or, if any Securities of that Series are Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such Securities) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all of the Securities of that Series to be due and payable immediately, by a notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by Holders), and upon any such declaration such principal amount (or specified amount) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, shall become immediately due and payable. If an Event of Default specified in Section 6.1(d) or (e) shall occur, the principal amount (or specified amount) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all

 

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outstanding Securities shall ipso facto become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or any Holder.

At any time after such a declaration of acceleration with respect to any Series has been made and before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the Trustee as hereinafter in this Article provided, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series, by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if all Events of Default with respect to Securities of that Series, other than the non-payment of the principal and interest, if any, of Securities of that Series which have become due solely by such declaration of acceleration, have been cured or waived as provided in Section 6.13.

No such rescission shall affect any subsequent Default or impair any right consequent thereon.

Section 6.3.  Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee .

The Company covenants that if

(a) default is made in the payment of any interest on any Security when such interest becomes due and payable and such default continues for a period of 30 days, or

(b) default is made in the payment of principal of any Security at the Maturity thereof, or

(c) default is made in the deposit of any sinking fund payment when and as due by the terms of a Security,

then, the Company will, upon demand of the Trustee, pay to it, for the benefit of the Holders of such Securities, the whole amount then due and payable on such Securities for principal and interest and, to the extent that payment of such interest shall be legally enforceable, interest on any overdue principal and any overdue interest at the rate or rates prescribed therefor in such Securities, and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, including the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel.

If the Company fails to pay such amounts forthwith upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, may institute a judicial proceeding for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, may prosecute such proceeding to judgment or final decree and may enforce the same against the Company or any other obligor upon such Securities and collect the moneys adjudged or deemed to be payable in the manner provided by law out of the property of the Company or any other obligor upon such Securities, wherever situated.

If an Event of Default with respect to any Securities of any Series occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce its rights and the rights of the Holders of Securities of such Series by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any such rights, whether for the specific

 

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enforcement of any covenant or agreement in this Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted herein, or to enforce any other proper remedy.

Section 6.4.  Trustee May File Proofs of Claim .

In case of the pendency of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, arrangement, adjustment, composition or other judicial proceeding relative to the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or the property of the Company or of such other obligor or their creditors, the Trustee (irrespective of whether the principal of the Securities shall then be due and payable as therein expressed or by declaration or otherwise and irrespective of whether the Trustee shall have made any demand on the Company for the payment of overdue principal or interest) shall be entitled and empowered, by intervention in such proceeding or otherwise,

(a) to file and prove a claim for the whole amount of principal and interest owing and unpaid in respect of the Securities and to file such other papers or documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee (including any claim for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel) and of the Holders allowed in such judicial proceeding, and

(b) to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claims and to distribute the same,

and any custodian, receiver, assignee, trustee, liquidator, sequestrator or other similar official in any such judicial proceeding is hereby authorized by each Holder to make such payments to the Trustee and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to the Holders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, and any other amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.7.

Nothing contained in this Indenture shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Holder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities or the rights of any Holder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Holder in any such proceeding.

Section 6.5.  Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities .

All rights of action and claims under this Indenture or the Securities may be prosecuted and enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of the Securities or the production thereof in any proceeding relating thereto, and any such proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision for the payment of the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, be for the ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities in respect of which such judgment has been recovered.

 

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Section 6.6.  Application of Money Collected .

Any money or property collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such money or property on account of principal or interest, upon presentation of the Securities and the notation thereon of the payment if only partially paid and upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

First: To the payment of all amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.7; and

Second: To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid for principal of and interest on the Securities in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal and interest, respectively; and

Third: To the Company.

Section 6.7.  Limitation on Suits .

No Holder of any Security of any Series shall have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to this Indenture, or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless

(a) such Holder has previously given written notice to the Trustee of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the Securities of that Series;

(b) the Holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series shall have made written request to the Trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such Event of Default in its own name as Trustee hereunder;

(c) such Holder or Holders have offered to the Trustee indemnity or security satisfactory to the Trustee against the costs, expenses and liabilities that might be incurred by the Trustee in compliance with such request;

(d) the Trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity has failed to institute any such proceeding; and

(e) no direction inconsistent with such written request has been given to the Trustee during such 60-day period by the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series;

it being understood, intended and expressly covenanted by the Holder of every Security with every other Holder and the Trustee that no one or more of such Holders shall have any right in any manner whatever by virtue of, or by availing of, any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of any other of such Holders, or to obtain or to seek to obtain priority or preference over any other of such Holders or to enforce any right under this Indenture,

 

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except in the manner herein provided and for the equal and ratable benefit of all such Holders of the applicable Series.

Section 6.8.  Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal and Interest .

Notwithstanding any other provision in this Indenture, the Holder of any Security shall have the right, which is absolute and unconditional, to receive payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on such Security on the Maturity of such Security, including the Stated Maturity expressed in such Security (or, in the case of redemption, on the redemption date) and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment, and such rights shall not be impaired without the consent of such Holder.

Section 6.9.  Restoration of Rights and Remedies .

If the Trustee or any Holder has instituted any proceeding to enforce any right or remedy under this Indenture and such proceeding has been discontinued or abandoned for any reason, or has been determined adversely to the Trustee or to such Holder, then and in every such case, subject to any determination in such proceeding, the Company, the Trustee and the Holders shall be restored severally and respectively to their former positions hereunder and thereafter all rights and remedies of the Trustee and the Holders shall continue as though no such proceeding had been instituted.

Section 6.10.  Rights and Remedies Cumulative .

Except as otherwise provided with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities in Section 2.8, no right or remedy herein conferred upon or reserved to the Trustee or to the Holders is intended to be exclusive of any other right or remedy, and every right and remedy shall, to the extent permitted by law, be cumulative and in addition to every other right and remedy given hereunder or now or hereafter existing at law or in equity or otherwise. The assertion or employment of any right or remedy hereunder, or otherwise, shall not, to the extent permitted by law, prevent the concurrent assertion or employment of any other appropriate right or remedy.

Section 6.11.  Delay or Omission Not Waiver .

No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any Holder of any Securities to exercise any right or remedy accruing upon any Event of Default shall impair any such right or remedy or constitute a waiver of any such Event of Default or an acquiescence therein. Every right and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or to the Holders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as may be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Holders, as the case may be.

Section 6.12.  Control by Holders .

The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee, with respect to the Securities of such Series, provided that

 

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(a) such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture,

(b) the Trustee may take any other action deemed proper by the Trustee which is not inconsistent with such direction,

(c) subject to the provisions of Section 7.1, the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee in good faith shall, by a Responsible Officer of the Trustee, determine that the proceeding so directed would involve the Trustee in personal liability, and

(d) prior to taking any action as directed under this Section 6.12, the Trustee shall be entitled to indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in compliance with such request or direction.

Section 6.13.  Waiver of Past Defaults .

The Holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series may on behalf of the Holders of all the Securities of such Series waive any past Default hereunder with respect to such Series and its consequences, except a Default in the payment of the principal of or interest on any Security of such Series (provided, however, that the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from such acceleration). Upon any such waiver, such Default shall cease to exist, and any Event of Default arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured, for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other Default or impair any right consequent thereon.

Section 6.14.  Undertaking for Costs .

All parties to this Indenture agree, and each Holder of any Security by his acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Company, to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Holder, or group of Holders, holding in the aggregate more than 10% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series, or to any suit instituted by any Holder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of or interest on any Security on or after the Maturity of such Security, including the Stated Maturity expressed in such Security (or, in the case of redemption, on the redemption date).

 

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ARTICLE VII.

TRUSTEE

Section 7.1.  Duties of Trustee .

(a) If an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing, the Trustee shall exercise the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise as a prudent person would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of such person’s own affairs.

(b) Except during the continuance of an Event of Default:

(i) The Trustee need perform only those duties that are specifically set forth in this Indenture and no others.

(ii) In the absence of bad faith on its part, the Trustee may conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon Officer’s Certificates or Opinions of Counsel furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; however , in the case of any such Officer’s Certificates or Opinions of Counsel which by any provisions hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall examine such Officer’s Certificates and Opinions of Counsel to determine whether or not they conform to the form requirements of this Indenture.

(c) The Trustee may not be relieved from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act or its own willful misconduct, except that:

(i) This paragraph does not limit the effect of paragraph (b) of this Section.

(ii) The Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer, unless it is proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts.

(iii) The Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it with respect to Securities of any Series in good faith in accordance with the direction of the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such Series relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee, under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of such Series in accordance with Section 6.12.

(d) Every provision of this Indenture that in any way relates to the Trustee is subject to paragraph (a), (b) and (c) of this Section.

 

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(e) The Trustee may refuse to perform any duty or exercise any right or power unless it receives indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in performing such duty or exercising such right or power.

(f) The Trustee shall not be liable for interest on any money received by it except as the Trustee may agree in writing with the Company. Money held in trust by the Trustee need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.

(g) No provision of this Indenture shall require the Trustee to risk its own funds or otherwise incur any financial liability in the performance of any of its duties, or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers, if adequate indemnity against such risk is not assured to the Trustee in its satisfaction.

(h) The Paying Agent, the Registrar and any authenticating agent shall be entitled to the protections and immunities as are set forth in paragraphs (e), (f) and (g) of this Section and in Section 7.2, each with respect to the Trustee.

Section 7.2.  Rights of Trustee .

(a) The Trustee may rely on and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any document (whether in its original or facsimile form) believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper person. The Trustee need not investigate any fact or matter stated in the document.

(b) Before the Trustee acts or refrains from acting, it may require an Officer’s Certificate or an Opinion of Counsel or both. The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith in reliance on such Officer’s Certificate or Opinion of Counsel.

(c) The Trustee may act through agents and shall not be responsible for the misconduct or negligence of any agent appointed with due care. No Depositary shall be deemed an agent of the Trustee and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any act or omission by any Depositary.

(d) The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith which it believes to be authorized or within its rights or powers, provided that the Trustee’s conduct does not constitute willful misconduct or negligence.

(e) The Trustee may consult with counsel and the advice of such counsel or any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken, suffered or omitted by it hereunder without willful misconduct or negligence, and in reliance thereon.

(f) The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request or direction of any of the Holders of Securities unless such Holders shall have offered to the Trustee security or indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in compliance with such request or direction.

 

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(g) The Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, direction, consent, order, bond, debenture, note, other evidence of indebtedness or other paper or document, but the Trustee, in its discretion, may make such further inquiry or investigation into such facts or matters as it may see fit.

(h) The Trustee shall not be deemed to have notice of any Default or Event of Default unless a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has actual knowledge thereof or unless written notice of any event which is in fact such a default is received by the Trustee at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and such notice references the Securities generally or the Securities of a particular Series and this Indenture.

(i) In no event shall the Trustee be liable to any person for special, punitive, indirect, consequential or incidental loss or damage of any kind whatsoever (including but not limited to lost profits), even if the Trustee has been advised of the likelihood of such loss or damage.

(j) The permissive right of the Trustee to take the actions permitted by this Indenture shall not be construed as an obligation or duty to do so.

Section 7.3.  Individual Rights of Trustee .

The Trustee in its individual or any other capacity may become the owner or pledgee of Securities and may otherwise deal with the Company or an Affiliate of the Company with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee. Any Agent may do the same with like rights. The Trustee is also subject to Sections 7.10 and 7.11.

Section 7.4.  Trustee’s Disclaimer .

The Trustee makes no representation as to the validity or adequacy of this Indenture or the Securities, it shall not be accountable for the Company’s use of the proceeds from the Securities, and it shall not be responsible for any statement in the Securities other than its authentication.

Section 7.5.  Notice of Defaults .

If a Default or Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the Securities of any Series and if it is known to a Responsible Officer of the Trustee, the Trustee shall mail to each Securityholder of the Securities of that Series notice of a Default or Event of Default within 90 days after it occurs or, if later, after a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has knowledge of such Default or Event of Default. Except in the case of a Default or Event of Default in payment of principal of or interest on any Security of any Series, the Trustee may withhold the notice if and so long as its corporate trust committee or a committee of its Responsible Officers in good faith determines that withholding the notice is in the interests of Securityholders of that Series.

 

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Section 7.6.  Reports by Trustee to Holders .

Within 60 days after each                      commencing              ,              , the Trustee shall transmit by mail to all Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear on the register kept by the Registrar, a brief report dated as of such anniversary date, in accordance with, and to the extent required under, TIA § 313.

A copy of each report at the time of its mailing to Securityholders of any Series shall be filed with the SEC and each national securities exchange on which the Securities of that Series are listed. The Company shall promptly notify the Trustee in writing when Securities of any Series are listed on any national securities exchange.

Section 7.7.  Compensation and Indemnity .

The Company shall pay to the Trustee from time to time compensation for its services as the Company and the Trustee shall from time to time agree upon in writing. The Trustee’s compensation shall not be limited by any law on compensation of a trustee of an express trust. The Company shall reimburse the Trustee upon request for all reasonable out of pocket expenses incurred by it. Such expenses shall include the reasonable compensation and expenses of the Trustee’s agents and counsel.

The Company shall indemnify each of the Trustee and any predecessor Trustee (including the cost of defending itself) against any cost, expense or liability, including taxes (other than taxes based upon, measured by or determined by the income of the Trustee) incurred by it except as set forth in the next paragraph in the performance of its duties under this Indenture as Trustee or Agent. The Trustee shall notify the Company promptly of any claim for which it may seek indemnity. Failure by the Trustee to so notify the Company shall not relieve the Company of its obligations hereunder, unless and to the extent that the Company is materially prejudiced thereby. The Company shall defend the claim and the Trustee shall cooperate in the defense. The Trustee may have one separate counsel and the Company shall pay the reasonable fees and expenses of such counsel. The Company need not pay for any settlement made without its consent, which consent will not be unreasonably withheld. This indemnification shall apply to officers, directors, employees, shareholders and agents of the Trustee.

The Company need not reimburse any expense or indemnify against any loss or liability incurred by the Trustee or by any officer, director, employee, shareholder or agent of the Trustee through willful misconduct or negligence.

To secure the Company’s payment obligations in this Section, the Trustee shall have a lien prior to the Securities of any Series on all money or property held or collected by the Trustee, except that held in trust to pay principal of and interest on particular Securities of that Series.

When the Trustee incurs expenses or renders services after an Event of Default specified in Section 6.1(d) or (e) occurs, the expenses and the compensation for the services are intended to constitute expenses of administration under any Bankruptcy Law.

 

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The provisions of this Section shall survive the termination of this Indenture.

Section 7.8.  Replacement of Trustee .

A resignation or removal of the Trustee and appointment of a successor Trustee shall become effective only upon the successor Trustee’s acceptance of appointment as provided in this Section.

The Trustee may resign with respect to the Securities of one or more Series by so notifying the Company at least 30 days prior to the date of the proposed resignation. The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any Series may remove the Trustee with respect to that Series by so notifying the Trustee and the Company. The Company may remove the Trustee with respect to Securities of one or more Series if:

(a) the Trustee fails to comply with Section 7.10;

(b) the Trustee is adjudged a bankrupt or an insolvent or an order for relief is entered with respect to the Trustee under any Bankruptcy Law;

(c) a Custodian or public officer takes charge of the Trustee or its property; or

(d) the Trustee becomes incapable of acting.

If the Trustee resigns or is removed or if a vacancy exists in the office of Trustee for any reason, the Company shall promptly appoint a successor Trustee. Within one year after the successor Trustee takes office, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding Securities may appoint a successor Trustee to replace the successor Trustee appointed by the Company.

If a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of any one or more Series does not take office within 60 days after the retiring Trustee resigns or is removed, the retiring Trustee, the Company or the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the Securities of the applicable Series may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee.

A successor Trustee shall deliver a written acceptance of its appointment to the retiring Trustee and to the Company. Immediately after that, the retiring Trustee shall transfer all property held by it as Trustee to the successor Trustee subject to the lien provided for in Section 7.7, the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective, and the successor Trustee shall have all the rights, powers and duties of the Trustee with respect to each Series of Securities for which it is acting as Trustee under this Indenture. A successor Trustee shall mail a notice of its succession to each Securityholder of each such Series. Notwithstanding replacement of the Trustee pursuant to this Section 7.8, the Company’s obligations under Section 7.7 hereof shall continue for the benefit of the retiring Trustee with respect to expenses and liabilities incurred by it for actions taken or omitted to be taken in accordance with its rights, powers and duties under this Indenture prior to such replacement.

 

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Section 7.9.  Successor Trustee by Merger, Etc .

If the Trustee consolidates with, merges or converts into, or transfers all or substantially all of its corporate trust business to, another corporation, the successor corporation without any further act shall be the successor Trustee, subject to Section 7.10.

Section 7.10.  Eligibility; Disqualification .

This Indenture shall always have a Trustee who satisfies the requirements of TIA § 310(a)(1), (2) and (5). The Trustee shall always have a combined capital and surplus of at least $25,000,000 as set forth in its most recent published annual report of condition. The Trustee shall comply with TIA § 310(b).

Section 7.11.  Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company .

The Trustee is subject to TIA § 311(a), excluding any creditor relationship listed in TIA § 311(b). A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to TIA § 311(a) to the extent indicated.

ARTICLE VIII.

SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE

Section 8.1.  Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture .

This Indenture shall upon Company Order be discharged with respect to the Securities of any Series and cease to be of further effect as to all Securities of such Series (except as hereinafter provided in this Section 8.1), and the Trustee, at the expense of the Company, shall execute instruments acknowledging satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, when

(a) either

(i) all Securities of such Series theretofore authenticated and delivered (other than Securities that have been destroyed, lost or stolen and that have been replaced or paid) have been delivered to the Trustee for cancellation; or

(ii) all such Securities of such Series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation

(1) have become due and payable by reason of sending a notice of redemption or otherwise, or

(2) will become due and payable at their Stated Maturity within one year, or

(3) have been called for redemption or are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption by the Trustee in the name, and at the expense, of the Company, or

 

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(4) are deemed paid and discharged pursuant to Section 8.3, as applicable;

and the Company, in the case of (1), (2) or (3) above, shall have irrevocably deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds in trust an amount of money or U.S. Government Obligations, which amount shall be sufficient for the purpose of paying and discharging each installment of principal (including mandatory sinking fund or analogous payments) of and interest on all the Securities of such Series on the dates such installments of principal or interest are due;

(b) the Company has paid or caused to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by the Company; and

(c) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent provided for relating to the satisfaction and discharge contemplated by this Section have been complied with.

Notwithstanding the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, the obligations of the Company to the Trustee under Section 7.7, and, if money shall have been deposited with the Trustee pursuant to clause (a) of this Section, the provisions of Sections 2.4, 2.7, 2.8, 8.2 and 8.5 shall survive.

Section 8.2.  Application of Trust Funds; Indemnification .

(a) Subject to the provisions of Section 8.5, all money and U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 8.1, 8.3 or 8.4 and all money received by the Trustee in respect of U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 8.1, 8.3 or 8.4, shall be held in trust and applied by it, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities and this Indenture, to the payment, either directly or through any Paying Agent (including the Company acting as its own Paying Agent) as the Trustee may determine, to the persons entitled thereto, of the principal and interest for whose payment such money has been deposited with or received by the Trustee or to make mandatory sinking fund payments or analogous payments as contemplated by Sections 8.1, 8.3 or 8.4.

(b) The Company shall pay and shall indemnify the Trustee against any tax, fee or other charge imposed on or assessed against U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited pursuant to Sections 8.1, 8.3 or 8.4 or the interest and principal received in respect of such obligations other than any payable by or on behalf of Holders.

(c) The Trustee shall deliver or pay to the Company from time to time upon Company Order any U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations or money held by it as provided in Sections 8.3 or 8.4 which, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent certified public accountants or investment bank expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, are then in

 

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excess of the amount thereof which then would have been required to be deposited for the purpose for which such U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations or money were deposited or received. This provision shall not authorize the sale by the Trustee of any U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations held under this Indenture.

Section 8.3.  Legal Defeasance of Securities of any Series .

Unless this Section 8.3 is otherwise specified, pursuant to Section 2.2, to be inapplicable to Securities of any Series, the Company shall be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire indebtedness on all the outstanding Securities of any Series on the 91st day after the date of the deposit referred to in subparagraph (d) hereof, and the provisions of this Indenture, as it relates to such outstanding Securities of such Series, shall no longer be in effect (and the Trustee, at the expense of the Company, shall, upon receipt of a Company Order, execute instruments acknowledging the same), except as to:

(a) the rights of Holders of Securities of such Series to receive, from the trust funds described in subparagraph (d) hereof, (i) payment of the principal of and each installment of principal of and interest on the outstanding Securities of such Series on the Maturity of such principal or installment of principal or interest and (ii) the benefit of any mandatory sinking fund payments applicable to the Securities of such Series on the day on which such payments are due and payable in accordance with the terms of this Indenture and the Securities of such Series;

(b) the provisions of Sections 2.4, 2.5, 2.7, 2.8, 7.7, 8.2, 8.3, 8.5 and 8.6; and

(c) the rights, powers, trusts and immunities of the Trustee hereunder and the Company’s obligations in connection therewith;

provided that, the following conditions shall have been satisfied:

(d) the Company shall have deposited or caused to be deposited (except as provided in Section 8.2(c)) with the Trustee as trust funds specifically pledged as security for and dedicated solely to the benefit of the Holders of such Securities (i) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in Dollars, cash in Dollars and/or U.S. Government Obligations, or (ii) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in a Foreign Currency (other than a composite currency), money and/or Foreign Government Obligations, which through the payment of interest and principal in respect thereof in accordance with their terms, will provide (and without reinvestment), not later than one day before the due date of any payment of money, an amount in cash, sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay and discharge each installment of principal of and interest, on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of all the Securities of such Series on the dates such installments of principal or interest and such sinking fund payments are due;

 

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(e) such deposit will not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, this Indenture or any other agreement or instrument to which the Company is a party or by which it is bound;

(f) no Default or Event of Default with respect to the Securities of such Series shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit or during the period ending on the 91st day after such date;

(g) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that (i) the Company has received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling, or (ii) since the date of execution of this Indenture, there has been a change in the applicable federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such Opinion of Counsel shall confirm that, the Holders of the Securities of such Series will not recognize income, gain or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of such deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to federal income tax on the same amount and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred;

(h) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate stating that the deposit was not made by the Company with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding any other creditors of the Company; and

(i) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent provided for relating to the defeasance contemplated by this Section have been complied with.

Section 8.4.  Covenant Defeasance .

Unless this Section 8.4 is otherwise specified pursuant to Section 2.2 to be inapplicable to Securities of any Series, the Company may omit to comply with respect to the Securities of any Series with any term, provision or condition set forth under Sections 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6 and 5.1 and, unless otherwise specified therein, any additional covenants specified in a supplemental indenture hereto for such Series of Securities or a Board Resolution or an Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2 (and the failure to comply with any such covenants shall not constitute a Default or Event of Default with respect to such Series under Section 6.1) and the occurrence of any event specified in a supplemental indenture hereto for such Series of Securities or a Board Resolution or an Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2.18 and designated as an Event of Default shall not constitute a Default or Event of Default hereunder, with respect to the Securities of such Series, but, except as specified above, the remainder of this Indenture and such Securities will be unaffected thereby; provided that the following conditions shall have been satisfied:

(a) with reference to this Section 8.4, the Company has irrevocably deposited or caused to be irrevocably deposited (except as provided in Section 8.2(c)) with the Trustee as trust funds in trust for the purpose of making the following payments specifically pledged as security for, and dedicated solely to, the benefit of the Holders of

 

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such Securities (i) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in Dollars, cash in Dollars and/or U.S. Government Obligations, or (ii) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in a Foreign Currency (other than a composite currency), money and/or Foreign Government Obligations, which through the payment of interest and principal in respect thereof in accordance with their terms, will provide (and without reinvestment), not later than one day before the due date of any payment of money, an amount in cash, sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent certified public accountants or investment bank expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay and discharge each installment of principal (including mandatory sinking fund or analogous payments) of and interest on all the Securities of such Series on the dates such installments of principal or interest are due;

(b) such deposit will not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, this Indenture or any other agreement or instrument to which the Company is a party or by which it is bound;

(c) no Default or Event of Default with respect to the Securities of such Series shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit;

(d) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that (i) the company has received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling, or (ii) since the date of execution of this Indenture, there has been a change in the applicable federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such Opinion of Counsel shall confirm, subject to customary exclusions, that the Holders of the Securities of such Series will not recognize income, gain or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of such deposit, covenant defeasance and discharge and will be subject to federal income tax on the same amount and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit, covenant defeasance and discharge had not occurred;

(e) The Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate stating the deposit was not made by the Company with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding any other creditors of the Company; and

(f) The Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to the covenant defeasance contemplated by this Section have been complied with.

Section 8.5.  Repayment to Company .

Subject to applicable abandoned property law, the Trustee and the Paying Agent shall pay to the Company upon request any money held by them for the payment of principal and interest that remains unclaimed for two years. After that, Securityholders entitled to the money must look to the Company for payment as general creditors unless an applicable abandoned property law designates another person.

 

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Section 8.6.  Reinstatement .

If the Trustee or the Paying Agent is unable to apply any money deposited with respect to Securities of any Series in accordance with Section 8.1 by reason of any legal proceeding or by reason of any order or judgment of any court or governmental authority enjoining, restraining or otherwise prohibiting such application, the obligations of the Company under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of such Series and under the Securities of such Series shall be revived and reinstated as though no deposit had occurred pursuant to Section 8.1 until such time as the Trustee or the Paying Agent is permitted to apply all such money in accordance with Section 8.1; provided , however , that if the Company has made any payment of principal of or interest on or any Additional Amounts with respect to any Securities because of the reinstatement of its obligations, the Company shall be subrogated to the rights of the Holders of such Securities to receive such payment from the money or U.S. Government Obligations held by the Trustee or Paying Agent after payment in full to the Holders.

ARTICLE IX.

AMENDMENTS AND WAIVERS

Section 9.1.  Without Consent of Holders .

The Company and the Trustee may amend or supplement this Indenture or the Securities of one or more Series without the consent of any Securityholder:

(a) to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency;

(b) to comply with Article V;

(c) to provide for uncertificated Securities in addition to or in place of certificated Securities;

(d) to add guarantees with respect to Securities of any Series or secure Securities of any Series;

(e) to surrender any of the Company’s rights or powers under this Indenture;

(f) to add covenants or events of default for the benefit of the holders of Securities of any Series;

(g) to comply with the applicable procedures of the applicable depositary;

(h) to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any Securityholder;

(i) to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of Securities of any Series as permitted by this Indenture;

(j) to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series and to add to or

 

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change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee; or

(k) to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of this Indenture under the TIA.

Section 9.2.  With Consent of Holders .

The Company and the Trustee may enter into a supplemental indenture hereto with the written consent of the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of each Series affected by such supplemental indenture (including consents obtained in connection with a tender offer or exchange offer for the Securities of such Series), for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Indenture or of any supplemental indenture hereto or of modifying in any manner the rights of the Securityholders of each such Series. Except as provided in Section 6.13, the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series by notice to the Trustee (including consents obtained in connection with a tender offer or exchange offer for the Securities of such Series) may waive compliance by the Company with any provision of this Indenture or the Securities with respect to such Series.

It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Holders of Securities under this Section 9.2 to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture hereto or waiver, but it shall be sufficient if such consent approves the substance thereof. After a supplemental indenture hereto or waiver under this section becomes effective, the Company shall mail to the Holders of Securities affected thereby, a notice briefly describing such supplemental indenture or waiver. Any failure by the Company to mail or publish such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such supplemental indenture or waiver.

Section 9.3.  Limitations .

Without the consent of each Securityholder affected, an amendment or waiver may not:

(a) reduce the principal amount of Securities whose Holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver;

(b) reduce the rate of or extend the time for payment of interest (including default interest) on any Security;

(c) reduce the principal or change the Stated Maturity of any Security or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation;

(d) reduce the principal amount of Discount Securities payable upon acceleration of the maturity thereof;

 

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(e) waive a Default or Event of Default in the payment of the principal of or interest, if any, on any Security (except a rescission of acceleration of the Securities of any Series by the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such Series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);

(f) make the principal of or interest, if any, on any Security payable in any currency other than that stated in the Security;

(g) make any change in Sections 6.8, 6.13 or 9.3 (this sentence); or

(h) waive a redemption payment with respect to any Security, provided that such redemption is made at the Company’s option.

Section 9.4.  Compliance with Trust Indenture Act .

Every amendment to this Indenture or the Securities of one or more Series shall be set forth in a supplemental indenture hereto that complies with the TIA as then in effect.

Section 9.5.  Revocation and Effect of Consents .

Until an amendment is set forth in a supplemental indenture hereto or a waiver becomes effective, a consent to it by a Holder of a Security is a continuing consent by the Holder and every subsequent Holder of a Security or portion of a Security that evidences the same debt as the consenting Holder’s Security, even if notation of the consent is not made on any Security. However, any such Holder or subsequent Holder may revoke the consent as to his Security or portion of a Security if the Trustee receives the notice of revocation before the date of such supplemental indenture or the date the waiver becomes effective.

Any amendment or waiver once effective shall bind every Securityholder of each Series affected by such amendment or waiver unless it is of the type described in any of clauses (a) through (h) of Section 9.3. In that case, the amendment or waiver shall bind each Holder of a Security who has consented to it and every subsequent Holder of a Security or portion of a Security that evidences the same debt as the consenting Holder’s Security.

The Company may, but shall not be obligated to, fix a record date for the purpose of determining the Holders entitled to give their consent or take any other action described above or required or permitted to be taken pursuant to this Indenture. If a record date is fixed, then notwithstanding the immediately preceding paragraph, those persons who were Holders at such record date (or their duly designated proxies), and only those persons, shall be entitled to give such consent or to revoke any consent previously given or take any such action, whether or not such persons continue to be Holders after such record date. No such consent shall be valid or effective for more than 120 days after such record date.

Section 9.6.  Notation on or Exchange of Securities .

The Company or the Trustee may place an appropriate notation about an amendment or waiver on any Security of any Series thereafter authenticated. The Company in

 

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exchange for Securities of that Series may issue and the Trustee shall authenticate upon receipt of a Company Order in accordance with Section 2.3 new Securities of that Series that reflect the amendment or waiver.

Section 9.7.  Trustee Protected .

In executing, or accepting the additional trusts created by, any supplemental indenture hereto permitted by this Article or the modifications thereby of the trusts created by this Indenture, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and (subject to Section 7.1) shall be fully protected in relying upon, an Officer’s Certificate or an Opinion of Counsel or both complying with Section 10.4. The Trustee shall sign all supplemental indentures hereto upon delivery of such an Officer’s Certificate or Opinion of Counsel or both, except that the Trustee need not sign any supplemental indenture that adversely affects its rights.

ARTICLE X.

MISCELLANEOUS

Section 10.1.  Trust Indenture Act Controls .

If any provision of this Indenture limits, qualifies, or conflicts with another provision which is required or deemed to be included in this Indenture by the TIA, such required or deemed provision shall control.

Section 10.2.  Notices .

Any notice or communication by the Company or the Trustee to the other, or by a Holder to the Company or the Trustee, is duly given if in writing and delivered in person or mailed by first-class mail (registered or certified, return receipt requested), facsimile transmission, email or overnight air courier guaranteeing next day delivery, to the others’ address:

if to the Company:

Conatus Pharmaceuticals Inc.

16745 West Bernardo Drive, Suite 200

San Diego, CA 92127

Attention: Corporate Secretary

with a copy to:

Latham & Watkins LLP

12670 High Bluff Drive

San Diego, California 92130

Attention: Cheston J. Larson, Esq.

 

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if to the Trustee:

[              ]

Attention: [              ]

with a copy to:

[              ]

Attention: [              ]

The Company or the Trustee by notice to the other may designate additional or different addresses for subsequent notices or communications.

Any notice or communication to a Securityholder shall be sent electronically or by first-class mail to his, her or its address shown on the register kept by the Registrar, in accordance with the procedures of the Depositary. Failure to mail a notice or communication to a Securityholder of any Series or any defect in it shall not affect its sufficiency with respect to other Securityholders of that or any other Series.

If a notice or communication is sent or published in the manner provided above, within the time prescribed, it is duly given, whether or not the Securityholder receives it.

If the Company sends a notice or communication to Securityholders, it shall send a copy to the Trustee and each Agent at the same time.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this Indenture or any Security, where this Indenture or any Security provides for notice of any event (including any notice of redemption) to a Holder of a Global Security (whether by mail or otherwise), such notice shall be sufficiently given to the Depositary for such Security (or its designee) pursuant to the customary procedures of such Depositary.

Section 10.3.  Communication by Holders with Other Holders .

Securityholders of any Series may communicate pursuant to TIA § 312(b) with other Securityholders of that Series or any other Series with respect to their rights under this Indenture or the Securities of that Series or all Series. The Company, the Trustee, the Registrar and anyone else shall have the protection of TIA § 312(c).

Section 10.4.  Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent .

Upon any request or application by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee:

(a) an Officer’s Certificate stating that, in the opinion of the signers, all conditions precedent, if any, provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with; and

 

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(b) an Opinion of Counsel stating that, in the opinion of such counsel, all such conditions precedent have been complied with.

Section 10.5.  Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion .

Each certificate or opinion with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant provided for in this Indenture (other than a certificate provided pursuant to TIA § 314(a)(4)) shall comply with the provisions of TIA § 314(e) and shall include:

(a) a statement that the person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition;

(b) a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based;

(c) a statement that, in the opinion of such person, he has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable him to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and

(d) a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such person, such condition or covenant has been complied with.

Section 10.6.  Rules by Trustee and Agents .

The Trustee may make reasonable rules for action by or a meeting of Securityholders of one or more Series. Any Agent may make reasonable rules and set reasonable requirements for its functions.

Section 10.7.  Legal Holidays .

Unless otherwise provided by Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture hereto for a particular Series, a “ Legal Holiday ” is any day that is not a Business Day. If a payment date is a Legal Holiday at a place of payment, payment may be made at that place on the next succeeding day that is not a Legal Holiday, and no interest shall accrue for the intervening period.

Section 10.8.  No Recourse Against Others .

A director, officer, employee or stockholder (past or present), as such, of the Company shall not have any liability for any obligations of the Company under the Securities or this Indenture or for any claim based on, in respect of or by reason of such obligations or their creation. Each Securityholder by accepting a Security waives and releases all such liability. The waiver and release are part of the consideration for the issue of the Securities.

 

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Section 10.9.  Counterparts .

This Indenture may be executed in any number of counterparts and by the parties hereto in separate counterparts, each of which when so executed shall be deemed to be an original and all of which taken together shall constitute one and the same agreement. The exchange of copies of this Indenture and of signature pages by facsimile or PDF transmission shall constitute effective execution and delivery of this Indenture as to the parties hereto and may be used in lieu of the original Indenture for all purposes. Signatures of the parties hereto transmitted by facsimile or PDF shall be deemed to be their original signatures for all purposes.

Section 10.10.  Governing Law; Waiver of Jury Trial; Consent to Jurisdiction .

THIS INDENTURE AND THE SECURITIES, INCLUDING ANY CLAIM OR CONTROVERSY ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS INDENTURE OR THE SECURITIES, SHALL BE GOVERNED BY THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK.

THE COMPANY, THE TRUSTEE AND THE HOLDERS (BY THEIR ACCEPTANCE OF THE SECURITIES) EACH HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVE, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, ANY AND ALL RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY LEGAL PROCEEDING ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS INDENTURE, THE NOTES OR THE TRANSACTIONS CONTEMPLATED HEREBY OR THEREBY.

Any legal suit, action or proceeding arising out of or based upon this Indenture or the transactions contemplated hereby may be instituted in the federal courts of the United States of America located in the City of New York or the courts of the State of New York in each case located in the City of New York (collectively, the “ Specified Courts ”), and each party irrevocably submits to the nonexclusive jurisdiction of such courts in any such suit, action or proceeding. Service of any process, summons, notice or document by mail (to the extent allowed under any applicable statute or rule of court) to such party’s address set forth above shall be effective service of process for any suit, action or other proceeding brought in any such court. The Company, the Trustee and the Holders (by their acceptance of the Securities) each hereby irrevocably and unconditionally waive any objection to the laying of venue of any suit, action or other proceeding in the Specified Courts and irrevocably and unconditionally waive and agree not to plead or claim any such suit, action or other proceeding has been brought in an inconvenient forum.

Section 10.11.  No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements .

This Indenture may not be used to interpret another indenture, loan or debt agreement of the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company. Any such indenture, loan or debt agreement may not be used to interpret this Indenture.

Section 10.12.  Successors .

All agreements of the Company in this Indenture and the Securities shall bind its successor. All agreements of the Trustee in this Indenture shall bind its successor.

 

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Section 10.13.  Severability .

In case any provision in this Indenture or in the Securities shall be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the validity, legality and enforceability of the remaining provisions shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby.

Section 10.14.  Table of Contents, Headings, Etc .

The Table of Contents, Cross Reference Table, and headings of the Articles and Sections of this Indenture have been inserted for convenience of reference only, are not to be considered a part hereof, and shall in no way modify or restrict any of the terms or provisions hereof.

Section 10.15.  Securities in a Foreign Currency .

Unless otherwise specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2 of this Indenture with respect to a particular Series of Securities, whenever for purposes of this Indenture any action may be taken by the Holders of a specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of Securities of all Series or all Series affected by a particular action at the time outstanding and, at such time, there are outstanding Securities of any Series which are denominated in more than one currency, then the principal amount of Securities of such Series which shall be deemed to be outstanding for the purpose of taking such action shall be determined by converting any such other currency into a currency that is designated upon issuance of any particular Series of Securities. Unless otherwise specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2 of this Indenture with respect to a particular Series of Securities, such conversion shall be at the spot rate for the purchase of the designated currency as published in The Financial Times in the “Currency Rates” section (or, if The Financial Times is no longer published, or if such information is no longer available in The Financial Times, such source as may be selected in good faith by the Company) on any date of determination (the “ Market Exchange Rate ”). The provisions of this paragraph shall apply in determining the equivalent principal amount in respect of Securities of a Series denominated in currency other than Dollars in connection with any action taken by Holders of Securities pursuant to the terms of this Indenture.

All decisions and determinations provided for in the preceding paragraph shall, in the absence of manifest error, to the extent permitted by law, be conclusive for all purposes and irrevocably binding upon the Trustee and all Holders.

Section 10.16.  Judgment Currency .

The Company agrees, to the fullest extent that it may effectively do so under applicable law, that (a) if for the purpose of obtaining judgment in any court it is necessary to convert the sum due in respect of the principal of or interest or other amount on the Securities of any Series (the “ Required Currency ”) into a currency in which a judgment will be rendered (the “ Judgment Currency ”), the rate of exchange used shall be the rate at which in accordance with normal banking procedures the Trustee could purchase in The City of New York the Required Currency with the Judgment Currency on the day on which final unappealable judgment is

 

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entered, unless such day is not a New York Banking Day, then the rate of exchange used shall be the rate at which in accordance with normal banking procedures the Trustee could purchase in The City of New York the Required Currency with the Judgment Currency on the New York Banking Day preceding the day on which final unappealable judgment is entered and (b) its obligations under this Indenture to make payments in the Required Currency (i) shall not be discharged or satisfied by any tender, any recovery pursuant to any judgment (whether or not entered in accordance with subsection (a)), in any currency other than the Required Currency, except to the extent that such tender or recovery shall result in the actual receipt, by the payee, of the full amount of the Required Currency expressed to be payable in respect of such payments, (ii) shall be enforceable as an alternative or additional cause of action for the purpose of recovering in the Required Currency the amount, if any, by which such actual receipt shall fall short of the full amount of the Required Currency so expressed to be payable, and (iii) shall not be affected by judgment being obtained for any other sum due under this Indenture. For purposes of the foregoing, “ New York Banking Day ” means any day except a Saturday, Sunday or a legal holiday in The City of New York on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law, regulation or executive order to close.

Section 10.17.  Force Majeure .

In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for any failure or delay in the performance of its obligations hereunder arising out of or caused by, directly or indirectly, forces beyond its control, including, without limitation, strikes, work stoppages, accidents, acts of war or terrorism, civil or military disturbances, nuclear or natural catastrophes or acts of God, and interruptions, loss or malfunctions of utilities, communications or computer (software and hardware) services, it being understood that the Trustee shall use reasonable best efforts which are consistent with accepted practices in the banking industry to resume performance as soon as practicable under the circumstances.

Section 10.18.  U.S.A. Patriot Act .

The parties hereto acknowledge that in accordance with Section 326 of the U.S.A. Patriot Act, the Trustee is required to obtain, verify, and record information that identifies each person or legal entity that establishes a relationship or opens an account with the Trustee. The parties to this Indenture agree that they will provide the Trustee with such information as it may request in order for the Trustee to satisfy the requirements of the U.S.A. Patriot Act.

ARTICLE XI.

SINKING FUNDS

Section 11.1.  Applicability of Article .

The provisions of this Article shall be applicable to any sinking fund for the retirement of the Securities of a Series if so provided by the terms of such Securities pursuant to Section 2.2, except as otherwise permitted or required by any form of Security of such Series issued pursuant to this Indenture.

 

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The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of the Securities of any Series is herein referred to as a “ mandatory sinking fund payment ” and any other amount provided for by the terms of Securities of such Series is herein referred to as an “ optional sinking fund payment .” If provided for by the terms of Securities of any Series, the cash amount of any sinking fund payment may be subject to reduction as provided in Section 11.2. Each sinking fund payment shall be applied to the redemption of Securities of any Series as provided for by the terms of the Securities of such Series.

Section 11.2.  Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities .

The Company may, in satisfaction of all or any part of any sinking fund payment with respect to the Securities of any Series to be made pursuant to the terms of such Securities (1) deliver outstanding Securities of such Series to which such sinking fund payment is applicable (other than any of such Securities previously called for mandatory sinking fund redemption) and (2) apply as credit Securities of such Series to which such sinking fund payment is applicable and which have been repurchased by the Company or redeemed either at the election of the Company pursuant to the terms of such Series of Securities (except pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund) or through the application of permitted optional sinking fund payments or other optional redemptions pursuant to the terms of such Securities, provided that such Securities have not been previously so credited. Such Securities shall be received by the Trustee, together with an Officer’s Certificate with respect thereto, not later than 15 days prior to the date on which the Trustee begins the process of selecting Securities for redemption, and shall be credited for such purpose by the Trustee at the price specified in such Securities for redemption through operation of the sinking fund and the amount of such sinking fund payment shall be reduced accordingly. If as a result of the delivery or credit of Securities in lieu of cash payments pursuant to this Section 11.2, the principal amount of Securities of such Series to be redeemed in order to exhaust the aforesaid cash payment shall be less than $100,000, the Trustee need not call Securities of such Series for redemption, except upon receipt of a Company Order that such action be taken, and such cash payment shall be held by the Trustee or a Paying Agent and applied to the next succeeding sinking fund payment, provided , however , that the Trustee or such Paying Agent shall from time to time upon receipt of a Company Order pay over and deliver to the Company any cash payment so being held by the Trustee or such Paying Agent upon delivery by the Company to the Trustee of Securities of that Series purchased by the Company having an unpaid principal amount equal to the cash payment required to be released to the Company.

Section 11.3.  Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund .

Not less than 45 days (unless otherwise indicated in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate in respect of a particular Series of Securities) prior to each sinking fund payment date for any Series of Securities, the Company will deliver to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate specifying the amount of the next ensuing mandatory sinking fund payment for that Series pursuant to the terms of that Series, the portion thereof, if any, which is to be satisfied by payment of cash and the portion thereof, if any, which is to be satisfied by delivering and crediting of Securities of that Series pursuant to Section 11.2, and the optional amount, if any, to be added in cash to the next ensuing mandatory sinking fund payment, and the Company shall thereupon be obligated to pay the amount therein specified.

 

45


Not less than 30 days (unless otherwise indicated in the Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture hereto in respect of a particular Series of Securities) before each such sinking fund payment date the Securities to be redeemed upon such sinking fund payment date will be selected in the manner specified in Section 3.2 and the Company shall send or cause to be sent a notice of the redemption thereof to be given in the name of and at the expense of the Company in the manner provided in and in accordance with Section 3.3. Such notice having been duly given, the redemption of such Securities shall be made upon the terms and in the manner stated in Sections 3.4, 3.5 and 3.6.

 

46


IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed as of the day and year first above written.

 

Conatus Pharmaceuticals Inc.
By:    
  Name:
  Its:
[              ], as Trustee
By:    
  Name:
  Its:

Exhibit 5.1

 

LOGO

 

August 17, 2017

   12670 High Bluff Drive
   San Diego, California 92130
  

Tel: +1.858.523.5400 Fax: +1.858.523.5450

www.lw.com

  

 

FIRM /AFFILIATE OFFICES

   Barcelona    Moscow
   Beijing    Munich
   Boston    New York
   Brussels    Orange County
   Century City    Paris
   Chicago    Riyadh
   Dubai    Rome
   Düsseldorf    San Diego
   Frankfurt    San Francisco
   Hamburg    Seoul
   Hong Kong    Shanghai
   Houston    Silicon Valley
   London    Singapore
   Los Angeles    Tokyo
   Madrid    Washington, D.C.
   Milan   

Conatus Pharmaceuticals Inc.

16745 West Bernardo Drive, Suite 200

San Diego, CA 92127

 

  Re: Registration Statement on Form S-3

Ladies and Gentlemen:

We have acted as special counsel to Conatus Pharmaceuticals Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “ Company ”), in connection with its filing on the date hereof with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “ Commission ”) of a registration statement on Form S-3 (the “ Registration Statement ”), including a base prospectus (the “ Base Prospectus ”), which provides that it will be supplemented by one or more prospectus supplements (each such prospectus supplement, together with the Base Prospectus, a “ Prospectus ”), under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “ Act ”), relating to the registration for issue and sale by the Company of up to $100,000,000 in aggregate principal amount of (i) one or more series of the Company’s debt securities (collectively, “ Debt Securities ”) to be issued under an indenture to be entered into between the Company, as issuer, and a trustee (a form of which is included as Exhibit 4.6 to the Registration Statement) and one or more board resolutions, supplemental indentures thereto or officer’s certificates thereunder (such indenture, together with the applicable board resolution, supplemental indenture or officer’s certificate pertaining to the applicable series of Debt Securities, the “ Applicable Indenture ”), (ii) shares of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (the “ Common Stock ”), (iii) shares of one or more series of the Company’s preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share (the “ Preferred Stock ”), (iv) warrants to purchase Debt Securities, Common Stock or Preferred Stock (“ Warrants ”), and (v) units consisting of two or more of the Securities (as defined below) (“ Units ”). The Debt Securities, Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Warrants and Units, plus any additional Debt Securities, Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Warrants and Units that may be registered pursuant to any subsequent registration statement that the Company may hereafter file with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Act in connection with the offering by the Company contemplated by the Registration Statement, are referred to herein collectively as the “ Securities .”

This opinion is being furnished in connection with the requirements of Item 601(b)(5) of Regulation S-K under the Act, and no opinion is expressed herein as to any matter


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pertaining to the contents of the Registration Statement or applicable Prospectus, other than as expressly stated herein with respect to the issue of the Securities.

As such counsel, we have examined such matters of fact and questions of law as we have considered appropriate for purposes of this letter. With your consent, we have relied upon certificates and other assurances of officers of the Company and others as to factual matters without having independently verified such factual matters. We are opining herein as to the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, and with respect to the opinions set forth in numbered paragraphs 1, 4 and 5 below, the internal laws of the State of New York, and we express no opinion with respect to the applicability thereto, or the effect thereon, of the laws of any other jurisdiction or, in the case of Delaware, any other laws, or as to any matters of municipal law or the laws of any local agencies within any state.

Subject to the foregoing and the other matters set forth herein, it is our opinion that, as of the date hereof:

1. When the Applicable Indenture has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by all necessary corporate action of the Company, and when the specific terms of a particular series of Debt Securities have been duly established in accordance with the terms of the Applicable Indenture and authorized by all necessary corporate action of the Company and such Debt Securities have been duly executed, authenticated, issued and delivered against payment therefor in accordance with the terms of the Applicable Indenture and in the manner contemplated by the applicable Prospectus and by such corporate action, such Debt Securities will be legally valid and binding obligations of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with their terms.

2. When an issuance of Common Stock has been duly authorized by all necessary corporate action of the Company, upon issuance, delivery and payment therefor in an amount not less than the par value thereof in the manner contemplated by the applicable Prospectus and by such corporate action, and in total amounts and numbers of shares that do not exceed the respective total amounts and numbers of shares (a) available under the Company’s certificate of incorporation and (b) authorized by the board of directors in connection with the offering contemplated by the applicable Prospectus, such shares of Common Stock will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable. In rendering the foregoing opinion, we have assumed that the Company will comply with all applicable notice requirements regarding uncertificated shares provided in the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware.

3. When a series of Preferred Stock has been duly established in accordance with the terms of the Company’s certificate of incorporation and authorized by all necessary corporate action of the Company, upon issuance, delivery and payment therefor in an amount not less than the par value thereof in the manner contemplated by the applicable Prospectus and by such corporate action, and in total amounts and numbers of shares that do not exceed the respective total amounts and numbers of shares (a) available under the Company’s certificate of incorporation and (b) authorized by the board of directors in connection with the offering contemplated by the applicable Prospectus, such shares of such series of Preferred Stock will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable. In rendering the foregoing opinion, we have

 


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assumed that the Company will comply with all applicable notice requirements regarding uncertificated shares provided in the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware.

4. When the applicable warrant agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by all necessary corporate action of the Company, and when the specific terms of a particular issuance of Warrants have been duly established in accordance with the terms of the applicable warrant agreement and authorized by all necessary corporate action of the Company, and such Warrants have been duly executed, authenticated, issued and delivered against payment therefor in accordance with the terms of the applicable warrant agreement and in the manner contemplated by the applicable Prospectus and by such corporate action (assuming the securities issuable upon exercise of such Warrants have been duly authorized and reserved for issuance by all necessary corporate action), such Warrants will be the legally valid and binding obligations of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with their terms.

5. When the applicable unit agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by all necessary corporate action of the Company, and when the specific terms of a particular issuance of Units have been duly authorized in accordance with the terms of the applicable unit agreement and authorized by all necessary corporate action of the Company, and such Units have been duly executed, authenticated, issued and delivered against payment therefor in accordance with the terms of the applicable unit agreement and in the manner contemplated by the applicable Prospectus and by such corporate action (assuming the securities issuable upon exercise of such Units have been duly authorized and reserved for issuance by all necessary corporate action), such Units will be the legally valid and binding obligations of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with their terms.

Our opinions are subject to: (i) the effect of bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, preference, fraudulent transfer, moratorium or other similar laws relating to or affecting the rights and remedies of creditors; (ii) the effect of general principles of equity, whether considered in a proceeding in equity or at law (including the possible unavailability of specific performance or injunctive relief), concepts of materiality, reasonableness, good faith and fair dealing, and the discretion of the court before which a proceeding is brought; (iii) the invalidity under certain circumstances under law or court decisions of provisions providing for the indemnification of or contribution to a party with respect to a liability where such indemnification or contribution is contrary to public policy; and (iv) we express no opinion as to (a) any provision for liquidated damages, default interest, late charges, monetary penalties, make-whole premiums or other economic remedies to the extent such provisions are deemed to constitute a penalty, (b) consents to, or restrictions upon, governing law, jurisdiction, venue, arbitration, remedies or judicial relief, (c) waivers of rights or defenses, (d) any provision requiring the payment of attorneys’ fees, where such payment is contrary to law or public policy, (e) any provision permitting, upon acceleration of any Debt Securities, collection of that portion of the stated principal amount thereof which might be determined to constitute unearned interest thereon, (f) the creation, validity, attachment, perfection, or priority of any lien or security interest, (g) advance waivers of claims, defenses, rights granted by law, or notice, opportunity for hearing, evidentiary requirements, statutes of limitation, trial by jury or at law, or other procedural rights, (h) waivers of broadly or vaguely stated rights, (i) provisions for exclusivity,

 


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election or cumulation of rights or remedies, (j) provisions authorizing or validating conclusive or discretionary determinations, (k) grants of setoff rights, (l) proxies, powers and trusts, (m) provisions prohibiting, restricting, or requiring consent to assignment or transfer of any right or property, (n) any provision to the extent it requires that a claim with respect to a security denominated in other than U.S. dollars (or a judgment in respect of such a claim) be converted into U.S. dollars at a rate of exchange at a particular date, to the extent applicable law otherwise provides, and (o) the severability, if invalid, of provisions to the foregoing effect.

With your consent, we have assumed (i) that each of the Debt Securities, Warrants and Units and the Applicable Indenture, warrant agreements and unit agreements governing such Securities (collectively, the “ Documents ”) will be governed by the internal laws of the State of New York, (ii) that each of the Documents has been or will be duly authorized, executed and delivered by the parties thereto, (iii) that each of the Documents constitutes or will constitute legally valid and binding obligations of the parties thereto other than the Company, enforceable against each of them in accordance with their respective terms, and (iv) that the status of each of the Documents as legally valid and binding obligations of the parties will not be affected by any (a) breaches of, or defaults under, agreements or instruments, (b) violations of statutes, rules, regulations or court or governmental orders, or (c) failures to obtain required consents, approvals or authorizations from, or to make required registrations, declarations or filings with, governmental authorities.

This opinion is for your benefit in connection with the Registration Statement and may be relied upon by you and by persons entitled to rely upon it pursuant to the applicable provisions of the Act. We consent to your filing this opinion as an exhibit to the Registration Statement and to the reference to our firm contained in the Prospectus under the heading “Legal Matters.” We further consent to the incorporation by reference of this letter and consent into any registration statement or post-effective amendment to the Registration Statement filed pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Act with respect to the Securities. In giving such consent, we do not thereby admit that we are in the category of persons whose consent is required under Section 7 of the Act or the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder.

 

Very truly yours,
/s/ Latham & Watkins LLP

 

Exhibit 12.1

Conatus Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Computation of Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges

 

     Year Ended December 31,                 Six Months
Ended

June 30,
 
     2012     2013     2014     2015     2016     2017  

Computation of earnings:

            

Net income (loss) before provision for income taxes

   $ (8,749,239   $ (15,616,492   $ (22,319,891   $ (24,148,626   $ (29,733,441   $ (9,039,632

Fixed charges, as calculated below

     76,452       469,566       79,072       79,662       77,453       288,112  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total earnings

   $ (8,672,787   $ (15,146,926   $ (22,240,819   $ (24,068,964   $ (29,655,988   $ (8,751,520
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Computation of fixed charges:

            

Interest expense, including amortization of debt issuance cost

   $ 70,000     $ 462,570     $ 70,000     $ 70,000     $ 70,000     $ 284,313  

Estimated interest expense portion of rental expense

     6,452       6,996       9,072       9,662       7,453       3,799  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total fixed charges

   $ 76,452     $ 469,566     $ 79,072     $ 79,662     $ 77,453     $ 288,112  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Ratio of earnings to fixed charges(1)

     —         —         —         —         —         —    
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(1) Our earnings were inadequate to cover fixed charges for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016 by $8.7 million, $15.6 million, $22.3 million, $24.1 million and $29.7 million, respectively, and by $9.0 million for the six months ended June 30, 2017.

For the periods indicated above, we had no outstanding shares of preferred stock with required dividend payments. Therefore, the ratios of earnings to combined fixed charges and preferred stock dividends are identical to the ratios presented in the tables above.

EXHIBIT 23.1

CONSENT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

We consent to the reference to our firm under the caption “Experts” in this Registration Statement (Form S-3) and related Prospectus of Conatus Pharmaceuticals Inc. for the registration of up to $100,000,000 in aggregate principal amount of its common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants and/or units and to the incorporation by reference therein of our report dated March 16, 2017, with respect to the financial statements of Conatus Pharmaceuticals Inc. included in its Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2016, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

/s/ Ernst & Young LLP

San Diego, California

August 15, 2017